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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 21
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Using these four passages and your own knowledge, assess the view that Napoleons Empire in Europe after 1804 offered little benefit to its subjects.

    5 star(s)

    Interpretation D also shows disagreement by saying ?the French presence tended to flush out the old regime.? Several nations within Europe, such as Poland and Austria, still operated on a bastardized feudalism, which was proving to be ineffectual compared to newer set of political and military customs being used in other European countries. Napoleon?s Civil Code helped to eradicate feudalism within the satellite states. Although, interpretation B argues that even with this, feudalism still existed in a different of form of ?nobles? privileges, seigneurial dues, serfdom and even labour services.? The nature of the political reforms regarding the structure of

    • Word count: 2001
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the successes and failures of Mussolini's domestic policy.

    5 star(s)

    The Church at that time was more worried about the threat from socialism, and fascism seemed to be suitable protection, and in actual fact, the Church and the State shared some common ground; they both saw the need for order, discipline, respect for leaders and a hierarchy, and a dislike of liberalism. Although progress early on continued at a slow pace, the relations by 1929 were at a peak, but went on to decline throughout the 1930s, with the disbanding of Catholic youth groups by 1931.

    • Word count: 2583
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the League of Nations fail?

    5 star(s)

    Herbert Hoover, US President, had advocated the purchase of shares by everyone as 'the final triumph over poverty'. Eleven suicides in New York that day demonstrated the severity of the crash. There were two great failures on the League's part in the 1930s. Firstly, in 1931 as a short-term result of the Wall Street crash and ensuing depression, Japan invaded the northern province of China known as Manchuria. Japan was heavily dependent upon the US economy, and the collapse of trade meant that the only way Japan could survive would be to expand. Possessing very little arable land and even fewer natural resources, Japan relied upon trade and Korea (it had taken Korea in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5)

    • Word count: 2504
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that Stalins suspicions of his western allies between 1941 and 1945 were justified

    4 star(s)

    Most of the casualties suffered by the USA were from fighting with the Japanese. The attack on Pearl Harbour on 7th December 1941, which effectively was the point at which America joined the war, saw 2,402 Americans were killed, 57 of these being civilians, with a further 1,247 wounded. Mainland fighting was also a cause of heavy losses for the Americans, for example with the Battle of Okinawa starting on the 1st April 1945 and ending on the 21st June 1945. If America were to win this battle, it would prove to be a strategic advantage over the Japanese, as their aim was to control the island as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland.

    • Word count: 2195
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Was it the policies pursued by Henry VIII that caused "the mid-Tudor crisis"?

    4 star(s)

    The members were to have equal powers and were to govern until Edward reached the age of eighteen. This corporation was meant to be balanced between the conservative and radical factions but by the time of Henry's death, the radical party had gained control. It could be argued that Henry was partly responsible for this, as it was he who had expelled Gardiner and had Norfolk arrested, thus weakening the conservatives, but it was almost inevitable that one faction would emerge stronger. Although a balanced solution is ideal in theory, in practice it is almost impossible to operate when there is a power vacuum and "no longer a royal focus of authority".

    • Word count: 2723
  6. To what extent can Hitler be considered to be "weak"?

    Paragraph 1: Hitler's Personality Joachim Fest (1963) emphasise that Hitler's personality was very temperamental and have sudden "abrupt changes of mood"1. This is also supported by Noakes and Pridham (1984), when claims are made about Hitler "avoiding decisions or declining to get involved"2 So it seems that Hitler was not willing to get involved in government proceedings and rarely made set decisions without getting distracted or changing his mind. These views are well supported by the fact that Hitler was very much a public and social figure rather than a political genius.

    • Word count: 2358
  7. How and why did the Weimar Governments collapse between October 1929 and January 1933?

    It appeared that Ludendorff's plan to shift blame from the army to the politicians had been very effective, but would lead to the violence and political unrest that would eventually destroy the Weimar Republic and, ultimately, democratic Germany. This almost instantaneous association between democracy and defeat did not serve well for promoting the new form of government. The German nation was a nation not familiar with the freedom of being able to rule themselves, having been under monarchical rule for centuries. Because of this, Germans looked to those who filled the role of leader (a new king, if you will)

    • Word count: 2930
  8. How far did Colbert achieve his economic objectives?

    Colbert's summary of the King's finances for the year 16802 is a very valuable source in strongly supporting this claim as well. The summary shows that Louis spent 1,917,413 livres purely on his food and drink account, a further 817,489 livres on his royal stables and over 3 million livres on his personal household, on top of 2,030,092 livres of ready cash for his personal use. Considering that Louis' total expenditure on the whole of France in this year was 95,964,011, these are significant sums of money which strongly support the claim that Colbert was very successful in providing the King with the money required to live a lavish lifestyle.

    • Word count: 2361
  9. Assess the economic, social and political consequences of the collectivisation of Russian agriculture in the 1930s.

    One of the main objectives of this plan was the creation of the 'kolkhoz', which is a collective farm. Collectivisation is, from Marxist theory, a representation of "a type of ownership specific to the socialist mode of production", and thus it is the process of creating collective communities where the land and the resources of an area are owned by the community or the nation as a whole, thus they do not belong to any individuals (Bottomore, Harris, Kiernan & Miliband 1991 p91).

    • Word count: 2348
  10. To what extent was the authoritarian nature of the n**i regime an aberration in the context of German history in the years 1848-1949?

    In attempting to answer this question, a variety of aspects of German government and politics must be assessed, from constitution to government structure to treatment of opposition. 1848-1858: * King has special executive authority: names ministers, controls diplomacy and military, can disband legislature at will, declare martial law, use emergency powers, exercise emergency powers * Legislature's only real power is control over budget; they were, however, elected through universal male suffrage * However, they were elected via tiered voting, meaning votes of influential landowners counted for more than the votes of peasants and the working classes * Defeat of the

    • Word count: 2064
  11. The importance of the First World War as a turning point in the development of Russian history has been vastly exaggerated. How far do you agree with this statement?

    The provisional government replaced the Tsar and it appeared that democracy was going to take hold in Russia. However, the problem of the First World War was still around and as losses continued to pile up the Bolsheviks managed to take hold of power. The First World War clearly had a huge impact as led to the downfall of the Romanov dynasty and led to communist rule. However, 1905 was also a time of political change. Nicholas II was forced into creating the Duma and allowing political parties and trade unions after uprisings which emerged from first the defeat to Japan and then the slaughter of civilians in Father Gapon's march.

    • Word count: 2314
  12. History Research Project. The influence of Major Vernon Kell in the effectiveness of the Security Services and his defence against German espionage between 1909 and 1914

    To combat these threats Britain, over a five year period between 1902 and 1907, made agreements with Japan, France and Russia which eased British naval commitments in the Pacific and Mediterranean. This also temporarily removed the prospect of having to defend the great British imperial possessions in the Indian subcontinent against Russian aggression. Although Britain had stopped the threats from Japan, France and Russia, there remained one major challenge. The threat that remained was of imperial Germany. Germany's growth from 1870 is said to have been down to the unification of the country.

    • Word count: 2968

    Donal McCracken also adds that "though the Irish were down, the Boers still knew so well how to preserve the independence of their country."2 Initially the suspension of the newly implemented Home Rule Bill would directly affect Irish politics. Its suspension was a direct result to the outbreak of war; for Redmond and the Irish Political Party, Home Rule appeared further away than ever. The frustration at the suspension of Home Rule would eventually impact on the decline of the IPP.

    • Word count: 2962
  14. What in your view was the short term significance of the Decembrist Revolt?

    He emphasises the need for progression in a changing world, however there is an element of regret in the rhetoric "the present situation cannot last forever". How far can the Decembrist revolt be seen in influencing this desire for change? I believe that the potential psychological threat of social instability brought by the revolt played a large part in this apparent desire for change. However, one must bear in mind that this was a speech made to the higher echelons of Russian society where he aimed to bolster his own support for autocracy by showing himself as a progressive, lessening the significance of the revolt on socio-economic improvements.

    • Word count: 2104
  15. Within the context of the period 1869-1914, to what extent was the British take-over of what would become Rhodesia typical of European Imperialism, in Africa?

    40 years later and international interest in the area increased, especially that of Cecil Rhodes: the infamous British imperialist. Arguably there are many reasons why Rhodes became interested in the area, however this was undoubtedly one of them: the area was just north of the Transvaal, which was already a British colony. By securing this piece of land, the British monopoly of South Africa would continue and, of course, undermine the efforts of fellow European countries. By also gaining this area, Rhodes could continue his dream of an "all red route" from the Cape to Cairo and, possibly, initiate his north to south railway.

    • Word count: 2139
  16. The Russian Revolution of October 1917 was potentially the most politically formative event of world history in the period 1879-1980. It saw the end of Russian autocracy, and gave rise to the first self-declared Socialist government.

    The Russian Revolution was a significant turning point in that it signalled the creation of the first major Communist state. The establishment of the Communist state and the Marxist-Leninist approach of 'Permanent Revolution' scared much of the firmly established liberal democracies and capitalist states in the West - predominantly America. Lenin sought expansionism that would cause European states to quickly fall, otherwise the fate of the Russian Revolution would be failure just like the Parisian communists before them - an active effort by Lenin to fight international bourgeoisie would be the Comintern, which was set officially set up against the League of Nations by USA President Woodrow Wilson.

    • Word count: 2220
  17. Hitler's Willing Executioners - The role of Ordinary Germans during the Holocaust

    Mass executions by the police force were carried out in an attempt to extinguish the Jewish race, however this process was taking too long and Heinrich Himmler appointed the police forces to begin the transport of Jewish people to concentration camps where gas chambers would end their suffering at extremely large numbers and thus, increase the rate of extermination. In order to completely understand the deeds of the perpetrators of the holocaust, the origins and the reasons for the n**i's and Germans passionately hating the Jews must be closely examined.

    • Word count: 2487
  18. Mussolini and Hitler: Road to Power

    Germany, which after the war became the Weimar Republic, had suffered the greatest losses in lives in the war however it was the treaty of Versailles, which was particularly harsh on Germany. According to the treaty Germany had to take the blame for causing the war, and was ordered to pay reparations to Britain and France; this was known as the war guilt clause. Also Germany lost all of her overseas colonies and was forbidden to have an army. There was a lot of resentment towards the outcome of the war in both countries.

    • Word count: 2685
  19. To what extent did Hitlers Policies attract working class support between 1933 and 1939?

    Ultimately, this failure to instill ideology placed too great a burden on economic policy, which could not be maintained given the priority of preparing for war. The fulcrum of Hitler's social policies for workers was the creation of jobs and wage increases to reflect recovery of the national economy and pride. There was recognition of the range of concerns amongst German workers with the propaganda effort stressing the relative merits of different sectors on top of the incessant emphasis on the importance of workers more generally.

    • Word count: 2432
  20. Assess the view that the Holocaust was mainly a result of a long term plan by Hitler to eliminate the Jews.

    At this time logistics directed attention onto the escalating ideological imperative to make the Holocaust resemble the only solution to the problem which had been so firmly established in the n**i psyche. In the absence of any clear and detailed "long term plan" focused irreconcilably upon producing genocide; Passage C's assessment of a "regime.. determined to undertake a task- the elimination of the Jews" , highlights the idea that the Nazis sense of purpose was the primary factor in the establishment of the "final solution".

    • Word count: 2202
  21. To vote for Hitler was above all a rejection of the existing system. Is this a wholly satisfactory explanation of the dramatic increase in n**i electoral support during the years 1930-1933?

    It had created a 25 point plan in which, for the good of the German people or to horror of the German people would actually be followed by Hitler in the years after his appointment as 'Fuhrer' of Germany. It was this structure and order that the n**i Party had that interested people. It, unlike almost all other parties in the Reichstag, was a party that appealed to many different classes within society and many different groups. Being called the National Socialist German Workers Party, it was a contradiction in meaning but it meant that it was naming vast sections of society within just the title.

    • Word count: 2211
  22. Assess the reasons why the Weimar Republic faced so many problems in the 1920s

    The reparations imposed by the Treaty were also one cause of the hyperinflation which was a huge crisis for the Weimar Government in 1923. Each of these reasons is important in explaining why the Weimar Republic faced so many problems in the early 1920s, but the most substantial cause of the problems was that the German people refused to accept the legitimacy of democracy. Before the constitution was drawn up in January 1919 by the Weimar Coalition, the percentage of votes for the coalition of parties in favour of the republic suggested that there was broad support amongst the German people for democracy; 76.2% voted for coalition parties with 38% for the SPD (Social Democratic Party)

    • Word count: 2603
  23. How far was the First World War responsible for the downfall of the Romanovs in 1917?

    All of these issues combined to cause the defeat of the ruling family and inevitably led to dramatic political and social change within Russia. I believe that the First World War was the main long-term cause as to the downfall of the Romanov's The war radically transformed Russia, the immediate effect was the enhanced popularity and status of the Tsar and the weakening of the anti-war Bolsheviks, but in the long run the War created many problems for Russia. The most significant predicament which the First World Ear brought to Russia was inflation where the value of money sharply declined

    • Word count: 2339
  24. Free essay


    Although Luxemburg had plans to 'undermine Ebert's government' with a great revolution, Lee (1998) states, the Spartacists didn't have a great deal of control over the workers' and soldiers' councils. Source A shows us that Luxemburg was not ready for the 'November revolution' as it "had many difficult tasks to perform." Luxemburg feels that the revolution is just the beginning as Ebert is only a moderate, therefore he will co-operate with the elite. To the Communists this was a betrayal of the socialist movement and a revolution had not actually taken place.

    • Word count: 2147
  25. Bismarcks appointment of Minister President of Prussia (1862) was the most important turning point in the course of German nationalism in the period 1815-1919?

    However, many of the opportunities which Bismarck actually attempted to manipulate were neither created by him nor very successful. Bismarck did not always manage nationalism as effectively as it is suggested. The Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71 forced to unite with the southern states in Germany when in reality it would have been unlikely that he desired this. Prussia was still attempting to absorb the north German states and to add the southern states, especially with their un-Prussian culture, risked diluting Prussia's culture too far. It is clear that in 1890 Bismarck was managed by nationalism because he was forced to resign due to the outpouring of nationalist feeling that resented him attempting to hold Germany in check.

    • Word count: 2018

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Little more than a show and a sham" Discuss this view of Mussolini's economic policies.

    "In conclusion, Mussolini's economic policies were essentially a show and a sham engineered to ensure the regime's support. The battle for land produced few results but was billed as success on an international level. The battle for lira made the country look strong whilst it actually weakened it and resulted in wage cuts. The corporative state did little for the countries workers and was not effective at helping the nations interests. Despite these failures there were two successes. The main one is the government's dealing with the worldwide depression. Their intervention prevented the levels of mass unemployment and recession that were seen in other Western European countries. To a lesser extent, the battle for grain was a success as by 1940 the country was almost self sufficient in this area. Even with these two successes it must be remembered that the countries national debt before the war was over 150 billion lire. With this taken into account it is reasonable to say that Mussolini's economic policies were a show and a sham. History (NAJ) Fascist Economy Essay 3/7/07 Russell Wright 1"

  • Assess the Reasons why Stalin's Political rivals were Unable to Prevent his Rise to Power

    "In conclusion, those that had the skill to oppose Stalin, like Trotsky, didn't realise how much of a threat was and failed to unite against him. He also had a great deal of luck - Lenin's criticisms of him in his testament were not made public, and he had the charge of factionalism to use to discredit anyone who opposed him. However, perhaps above all the most important reason was Stalin's megalomaniac personality, which made him an ideal dictator. Some have commented on his short height, suggesting that he had a tendency to keep himself to himself and was a "loner". Even the number of executions declined after his death. He was mad, evil and ruthless."

  • To what extent is Fascism a single doctrine?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that Fascism ids a single coherent doctrine to a certain extent since both Nazism and Italian Fascism share many fundamental beliefs. The ideas of both helped to shape the doctrine of Fascism and had profound influences on other Fascist regimes both in Europe and abroad. Most notably, Franco's Spain and Vichy France drew many of their central beliefs from the regimes of Hitler and Mussolini. Yet, there are many significant differences and the two should be treated as separate doctrines owing to the profound clashes over areas such as race and the state. Tessa Jones 13.9"

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