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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  1. How much support was there for imperialism from 1880-1902?

    Benjamin Disraeli was the leader of the Conservative Party at this time and was a major supporter for the expansion of the empire. During his speech in 1872, at Crystal Palace, he labelled India as the 'Jewel in the Crown' and said that England had never had such an important 'possession'. Disraeli made a popular move when he gifted Queen Victoria the name of 'Empress of India'. This helped give the public more understanding of how important India and imperialism was to Britain during this period, creating an atmosphere of 'jingoism' in Britain.

    • Word count: 654
  2. The appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933 was primarily the result of n**i electoral success.

    It was only in the later years such as May 1928, September 1930 and November 1932 where the NSDAP was a formidable party, yet Hitler was still not appointed. This shows that that if Hitler has been appointed Chancellor primarily due to the result of n**i electoral success, that Hitler would have been appointed earlier as in August 1932 and not in January 1933, this indicates that other factors played a major role in the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany in January 1933.

    • Word count: 832
  3. The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German foreign policy which had been waged since c1900

    This implies that the Germans were getting ready for a war and in turn their foreign policy was aggressive towards the rest of Europe. This view is supported by other historians like Fischer who has seen the war as a product of German aggression. Source W also hold the view that Germany had been aggressive by stating "but German actions going back to the 1890's had done much to create international tensions" which shows that in Blackbourns eyes, the Germans had been willing to provoke Europe into war for a very long time.

    • Word count: 1335
  4. How far did Alexander III bring political and social change to Russia?

    This could have triggered uproar. Also pogroms (Russian pale) were introduced. The government actually encouraged organisation to go into Jewish settlements and attack them, as a consequence to this thousands of Jews left the country causing a big social and political change. As the Jews were very productive and made up many of the upper class, they were good for their money e.g. the government got lots of money through taxing their land. When the Jews left they also left a hole to fill in the Russian economy, however this reinforced nationalism and only affected the minority of the population.

    • Word count: 640
  5. How far did the policy of industrialisation meet Stalins objectives by 1941?

    ?5? ?year plans demonstrate how Stalin felt the need to use industrialisation as a? ?tool for constructing a communist country. Source B shows his ideology had inconsistencies however and that he had alterative motives; as this source expresses ideas which include class welfare against class enemies such as the NEP and exploiting industrialisation to further his own position. During his consolidation of power towards becoming a single party state leader. Stalin did achieve this objective as he shifted his ideologies drastically to exploit events.?

    • Word count: 1044
  6. How far was the Crimean War a turning point in the development of Modern Russia?

    Alexander placed reforms on Military, education system, government, transport networks, censorship and ways of communications. The members, who were a part of the Russian army, were none other than Serfs themselves. The allies' had won victory in the Crimean war by having professional soldiers who were highly skilled, whereas the Serfs who severed as part of the Russian army had no skill at all and were frail, and had been forced into serving for the Russian Army, which led to the Russian defeat.

    • Word count: 1341
  7. How far was the death of Alexander II a turning point in the development of modern Russia?

    After the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, his son became successor and was now Alexander III Emperor of Russia, and was viewed as being more radical than his father had been. When Alexander III came to the throne in 1881, Russia had already faced financial reforms, a public budget, a new motion of judicial independence and trial by jury had been introduced, as well as the changes to the military. The reign of Alexander III introduced anti-Semitic policies, which places restrictions on the areas where Jewish people could live, as well as restrictions placed upon the occupations that could be held by Jewish people.

    • Word count: 1490
  8. How far was the personality of Nicholas II responsible for the instability in Russia in 1904? (24 marks)

    As a result of this Nicholas was only able to apply his father's repressive policies in a feeble matter. Therefore, Nicholas was incapable of implementing repressive policies as effectively as his father. Nicholas was also a very family orientated person, this had a negative impact upon his rule as he was heavily influenced by the Tsarina which furthermore undermined and weakened his power. Furthermore, Nicholas was inflexible as he possessed a firm and absolute belief in autocracy, he was stubbornly incapable of adapting to changing political and economic circumstances as Russia entered the modern age. However, other factors contributed to the instability of Russia in 1904 and why Nicholas found it increasingly difficult to rule Russia.

    • Word count: 1123
  9. How far do you agree that the Revisionist Views (of the causes of the Korean war) is the most accurate?

    Revisionist view of the Korean war is different to those of the traditional and local approaches. They say argue that the Korean war was because of expansionist and aggressive actions by the forces of the world communism, ( as traditional views believe). Historian Kathryn Weathersby shows Stalin as being too cautious to risk escalation of conflict with the USA. This is backed up with some evidence from Khrushchev, who had memoirs which stated that Kim II sung, had informed Stalin of his decision but Stalin replied and said he should think it over. This shows some accuracy too the view, they confirm that Stalin was too take elsewhere his foreign policy and he wasn't planning on spreading world revolution and he gave his agreement, shortly after the Korean war resulted in violence.

    • Word count: 876
  10. To what extent were economic considerations the main motive for Portuguese exploration and empire building?

    Nonetheless by the later part of the century, the so called Gold Coast had been explored and the famine ended, but the Portuguese economic considerations did not stop there as now the country had got used to its new found wealth and wanted more, more land and more gold. So when Portuguese explores found the West Indies at the start of the 16th century they continued to look for gold mines and more famously they competed with Spain to find the fabulous city of El Dorado in the America (the famous City of gold).

    • Word count: 3419
  11. What were Stalin's Motives for Soviet expansion, defensive or expansionist ?

    Firstly I'll look at why the people believed it was expansionist, in other words to spread world communism. Stalin had always believed in communist revolution. This was also seen by Truman which introduced the permanent revolution. This was the belief that Russia would not survive because of conflict between capitalism and communism was inevitable. However at the time Stalin put this too the side as he thought it wasn't important but it wasn't forgotten in the future. One of the main reasons that people believed that Stalin was too expand rather than be defensive was the introduction of Comintern.

    • Word count: 708
  12. To what extent can Hitler be considered to be "weak"?

    Paragraph 1: Hitler's Personality Joachim Fest (1963) emphasise that Hitler's personality was very temperamental and have sudden "abrupt changes of mood"1. This is also supported by Noakes and Pridham (1984), when claims are made about Hitler "avoiding decisions or declining to get involved"2 So it seems that Hitler was not willing to get involved in government proceedings and rarely made set decisions without getting distracted or changing his mind. These views are well supported by the fact that Hitler was very much a public and social figure rather than a political genius.

    • Word count: 2358
  13. Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905?

    A group of peaceful petitioners and their families were marching to the St. Petersburg palace, in order to present a petition to the Tsar to aid their desperate social and economic circumstances. The marchers demonstrate the socio-economic difficulties facing the majority of Russians outside of autocratic circles. Yet these marchers were peaceful and non-revolutionary in intent, hoping that the "little father" would consider their concerns and aid their conditions. The march induced a panic in the St Petersburg police forces, which began to fire upon marchers, killing approximately two hundred and injuring hundreds more.

    • Word count: 1799
  14. How valid is the view that, in the period 1855 1964, the lives of the peasants in Russia were constantly miserable?

    Peasants always had poor living and working conditions to contend with, one historian argued that peasantry is "the grimmest aspect of a grim topic", when talking about Russian history. Good examples to support this quote are the famines of 1921 and 1932, both under Communist rule. These were a result of rioting against collectivisation. Peasants did not want to hand over their equipment or produce to the Communists and purposely sabotaged their own stock to rebel. Different historians have estimated at how many deaths were a result of the famines, numbers have been as widely predicted between five and fifteen million people.

    • Word count: 672
  15. Free essay

    The unification of Germany was the consequence of Prussias economic policy over 40 years not Bismarcks diplomacy over 10. Discuss

    The Zollverein had originally started to be able to allow Prussia to trade with its new state the Rhineland, but because of the distance Prussia knew it needed other states to join. The Zollverein could also be seen as a tool to eliminate Austrian influence over the German Confederation, as Austria previously had been the main opposition to the uniting of Germany. Many of the states particularly the ones in the South had always been influenced by the Austrians and this was shown in the Austro-Prussian war where many of the states had fought against the Prussians.

    • Word count: 1095
  16. Describe the main grievances of the Russian people at the beginning of the 20th century

    Industrial growth after the abolition of serfdom did not really help progress the economy. One school of thought expected that the abolition of serfdom would create a spontaneous upsurge in industrialisation. The Emancipation act did nothing to stimulate a sudden upsurge in industrialisation, but it did not entirely block economic progress either. Though the size of peasant allotments did remain roughly equal, the amounts they actually farmed did not, because poorer households, with insufficient labour or livestock to farm their own allotments, rented them to wealthier peasants who could farm extra land.

    • Word count: 552
  17. a***s the role of Nicholas II in the fall of the Romanov Dynasty

    This loss showed the government's inability to cope with the economic and administrative problems of the war exposed to the Nicholas leadership inability to govern effectively. This was the start of the fall of the Romanov Dynasty which brought out the ineffective and unable side of Nicholas II. Defeats in Crimea and in Manchuria had cast some doubt on the capacity of the Russian army to deal with foreign opponents, and mutinied during 1905 had shown that its willingness to suppress internal dissent was not absolute.

    • Word count: 577
  18. The main threat to the stability of the Weimar Republic in the period 1919 to 1923 came from the political violence of the extreme right. How far do you agree with this statement?

    These figures and examples demonstrate two things to us, that the right wing was clearly a threat to the republic as not only were they responsible for the assassination of a huge number of politicians but it would seem that nobody was safe from them, no member of the republic was high profile enough to be safe. These figures also point out how little of a threat the far left was by comparison; the far left was responsible for only 22 of the 376 murders in those 3 years showing that there was definitely a clear gulf in the threat that the two extremes posed to the stability of the republic.

    • Word count: 1920
  19. The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German foreign policy which had been waged since 1900. How far do you agree?

    Historians such as Fischer would support this view and would use the document known as "The September Programme" to back up their claims. This document, drawn up in September 1914 shows us what the demands of the German state would be should they be victorious in the war, Fischer argued that this was proof that the German government had been planning a war in Europe for some time and had fully intended to do so in order that they may see through the demands of the September Programme and annex large areas east and west of Germany.

    • Word count: 1567
  20. The main threat to the stability of the Weimar Republic in the period 1919 to 1923 came from the political violence of the extreme right. How far do you agree with this judgement?

    The events of the Kapp-L�ttwitz Putsch revealed the army's reluctance to support the Republic. Furthermore, the ex-members of the Freikorps from the right continued to threaten the Republic after the failure of the Kapp-L�ttwitz Putsch. This was due to the way that despite other extreme violence from other organisations the majority of the murders between 1920 and 1922 were from the right, specifically 354 out of the 376. Though, a large General strike paralysed the capital. After L�ttwitz declared Kapp Chancellor, the government fled to Dresden and appealed to the workers to strike in defence of the Republic.

    • Word count: 893
  21. Explain why the Sans Coulottes had so much power by 1793

    The Sans Culottes also offered to round everyone up, but this did not come for free. Their price was the right for all me to vote. The convention decided this was the best way forward and put it through. This added to the Sans Culottes authority amongst the sections and made them rather popular. The Sans Culottes were also given the role to hand out the certificates of citizenship which gave them immense power at this time.

    • Word count: 458
  22. How far was Stalin's personality responsible for the purges?

    Due to his paranoid nature, he believed there were many who were against his position in the party and he wanted to rid the party of anyone that could rival him. These features of his personality may prove why his former comrades were killed, rather than exiled, which would have most likely been the case under Lenin. By also ridding the party of Old Bolshevik members, he was able to get rid of those who knew his limitations, which fed his inferiority complex.

    • Word count: 1683
  23. How far did the policy of industrialisation meet Stalin's objectives by 1941

    Stalin also wanted to make the USSR self sufficient and strong and felt that the USSR needed the support of the working class, source A refers to how the USSR have obligations to the world proletariat and industrial development could arise through this. Also, from my own knowledge I can suggest that Stalin wanted to industrialise to be able to compete with other countries because there had always been a sense of competition with the west even pre-world war one.

    • Word count: 1221
  24. Explain why Stalin came to power by 1929

    Stalin was always 100 per cent committed and he was prepared to go to extreme lengths to get into power, a characteristic that many of the other contenders didn't show, especially Trotsky. Stalin also had the ability to be flexible on his policies and wasn't hesitant to change his ideas. He picked his policies carefully, according to popularity within the party and political awareness. "... He changes his theories according to whom he needs to get rid of next" (Bukharin).

    • Word count: 809
  25. How far do you agree that Fascist Italy potentially posed a significant threat to British interests in the 1920s?

    protection of empire; affected by improve influence, o 4) Readiness to defend allies; disagreements over areas within med sea. o Anti n**i Militia o Locarno Pact o Rome Protocols o CONCLUDE Para 3: * Preserving Peace/Balance of Power o Locarno Pact o LOFN peace treaties- no o Peace treaties- not permanent o Mare Nostrum - Med Sea o CONCLUDE Conclusion: * Yes they were a significant threat even taking into consideration that some of the threats were indirect, unlikely to happen threats. How far do you agree that Fascist Italy potentially posed a significant threat to British interests in the 1920s?

    • Word count: 1067

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