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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  1. How significant was foreign influence in shaping Italian political and social development in the years c-1800-c1900?

    Factors such as conscription, which created an Italian army of 800,000 men; the introduction of a two-chamber representative government; and ideas such as equality, fraternity and liberty promoted nationalism and revolutionary thought. Broers highlights how "a significant number of educated Italians were deeply impressed by the efficient, centralised character of French rule"[3] revealing the impact of Napoleonic rule on the middle class Italian psyche. Austria was another major European power to have a major impact within Italy. The 1815 Vienna settlement split Italy into 5 major states (Piedmont, Lombardy-Venetia, The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, The Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples)

    • Word count: 2607
  2. To what extent was the strength of the French army the main reason for Napoleons military success until 1808?

    This meant that Napoleon could effectively win battles simply by overwhelming his opponents. The army inherited by Napoleon also had a democratised officer core, which meant the officers had earned their positions based on their talent and their ability to command, rather than their social standing. Having capable, competent and reliable officers in the army was undoubtedly very advantageous, as demonstrated at the battle of Jena-Auserstedt where General Davout was able to gain a decisive victory against the Prussian main army despite being outnumbered two to one. The development of divisions and corps in the internal organisation of the army and, furthermore, the development of weapons and tactics was integral to its success.

    • Word count: 1465
  3. In what ways did the Russo-Japanese War precipitate revolution in 1905?

    The people of Russia were angry and embarrassed. The Russo-Japanese war, on Russia?s part, was a catastrophic, shambolic disaster. For a start, the Russians were extremely arrogant, and thought that the war would be an easy victory. Kuropatkin (Russian Imperial Minister of War) claimed that Russia would need only two soldiers for every three Japanese. The military was poorly trained and poorly equipped, and there were communication issues, as expected when running a war which is happening 6000 miles away. The sheer arrogance and foolishness of the Russian Court, however, wasn?t Russia?s biggest problem.

    • Word count: 628
  4. Most n**i propaganda, especially during wartime, was crude, boring and ineffective. Most Germans simply switched off Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.

    The efficacy of n**i campaigning is reflected in the number of seats won in July 1932. 132 seats were gained with 37.27% of the public vote, making it the largest party in the Reichstag, with a total of 230 seats. The Nazis achieved this extraordinary victory, increasing the party?s number of seats by almost 100% through the cunning use of propaganda. By promoting the party as one that would pull the nation and subsequently its workers (as mentioned in the party?s name) out of the great depression that had crippled the German economy. Furthermore, it was the idea of Hitler as a demigod figure, personified by Goebbels? concept of the Hitler Myth which meant that propaganda

    • Word count: 738
  5. How far did Russia undergo economic and political modernization from 1881-1905?

    Under Tsarist rule there was no parliament and only the aristocrats had any say on the way Russia was run. However to the Russian people it seemed as if Alexander had taken a backward step in modernizing the political and economic ways after his fathers? reforms prior to 1881. This encouraged an increasing number of revolutionary parties forming underground. The political uprisings came from many middle class people and as Russification occurred, a large number of ethnic groups began to rebel and revolt as well.

    • Word count: 1997
  6. Assess the significance of the depression to the NSDAP rise to power in the period from 1929-1933

    The Goebbels designed ?Hitler over Germany? campaign, used the consequences of the economic depression to exploit the weaknesses of which democracy presented. At the time the Crash had led to 4.6 million Germans unemployed and the NSDAP used this as powerful propaganda appealing to the working class Germans for support, as the working classes were vulnerable to this type of propaganda. The n**i party re-assured the working class that if they were elected, they would being about a massive boost in overall national employment and aid those significantly who were unemployed, as the depression itself had led to lower overall welfare payments and higher taxation on all classes.

    • Word count: 1288
  7. Albert Speers Role as German Armaments Minister during the War

    He didn?t shout excitedly, but spoke with persuasion and sombrely about his visions for Germany. Speer, of course, was enormously affected by Hitler, not just by his appearance but by his proposed solutions and offer of hope and defence against the growth of communism, answer to the ineffectual Weimar Government and the renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles. Several weeks later, Speer attended another n**i rally, this time, presided over by Joseph Goebbels, Head of Propaganda. However, Speer was troubled by the way Goebbels had whipped the crowed into a frenzy by playing on their hopes.

    • Word count: 3909
  8. Use Sources A and B and your own knowledge. Explain how far the views in Source B differ from those in Source A in relation to the Berlin Olympic Games of 1936. [12 marks]

    On the other hand, there are more differences between the views presented in the sources than similarities. For example, only Wolfe explicitly shows some Germans didn?t enjoy the Berlin Olympics, describing how his ?German girlfriend began to feel oppressed by it?.

    • Word count: 471
  9. How far were the difficulties in governing Russia likely to cause problems for the Tsarist government in the first decades of the twentieth century

    leader like it appeared the Tsarist government was doing and so Russia was treated with a fusion of suspicion and awe by other world leaders. It was not that heavily involved in affairs of other countries, defeat in the Crimean war pushed Russians to make Russia into an industrialising country, although Slavophil?s and westerners views sometimes clashed this was something that they both agreed would help empower Russia except. in 1904 there was a war against Japan which after years of fighting was subsequently lost bringing great shame to the people of Russia especially when the Tsar ordered a seven month voyage to Manchuria and three out of the seven Russian Baltic ships were destroyed by Manc hurian ones.

    • Word count: 1320
  10. Stalinism and the transformation of Russia.

    This system gave Stalin effective control over the entire economy, and thereby the Soviet people. The most effective means of increasing Stalin?s power was collectivisation. This involved the elimination of private ownership of agricultural land, and its replacement with a system of state-owned and collectively-owned farms. The peasants who worked on these farms were under the control of the Party, which in turn was under the control of Stalin. Inadvertently, collectivisation also gave Stalin the opportunity to eliminate large numbers of ?class enemies? ? the kulaks ? and to steel Party members to wholesale murder.

    • Word count: 1636
  11. To what extent was Stalins position within the party and his manipulation of the competing power blocks of 1924-29 responsible for the defeat of his rivals?

    He was able to promote supporters within the party and remove opponents and even though most of his support was from people with barely any power within the party the amount of people who supported him was what was important. The majority of people that joined the Bolshevik Party through Lenin enrolment were largely uneducated about politics they owed their position in the party to Stalin and so were loyal to him. Stalin?s personality helped him to assess his rivals and recognise when he needed to change his tactics in order to rise to power and his manipulation of the power blocks successfully is evidence of this.

    • Word count: 1107
  12. Germany was more responsible than Britain for the naval race before the First World War. Discuss.

    "1905 Britain was building 4 large warships and Germany 2. In 1906 great Britain reduced to3 large warships and Germany increased to 3 in 1907 great Britain built 3 large warships and Germany built 3 in 1908 great Britain further reduced to 2 large warships and Germany further increased to 4." The British government further explained that they tried to reduce the naval rivalry but because of Germany not cooperating they were forced to take measures to ensure national security.

    • Word count: 1829
  13. Compare the characters and beliefs of Lenin and Stalin.

    Despite the fact that Stalin reveal and developed much more this �� quality,�� we can prove this statement as reliable information due to their ruthless methods and terror to stay in power. However they did not lack ability or at least that�s what they showed us. One of the key points which allowed them to stay in power apart from having clear ideas since they were the leaders was their excellent leadership qualities.

    • Word count: 6398

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