• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Mussolini created a loyal nation of fascists between 1926 and 1939. How far do you agree with this statement? (20 Marks)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Mussolini created a loyal nation of fascists between 1926 and 1939. How far do you agree with this statement? (20 Marks) I do not agree fully with this statement, I believe that there are more arguments against it, than for it. Mussolini did not completely create a loyal nation of fascists but he may have converted many of the Italian people into PNF supporters that were loyal to Italy and to him. He did this through education of the young, especially boys and patriotic celebrations. However the education and youth policy may also be used against the statement, along with the OND, the cult of il Duce, repression and propaganda. There are the issues of the separate popularity of the PNF and the popularity of Mussolini, and the questionable reasoning behind people joining the OND, ONB and other fascist organisations. The youth policy or the ONB (Opera Nazionale Balilla) in fascist Italy partly supports the statement. Boys were first organised in the ?sons of the she wolf? from the age of 6-8, then into the Balilla aged 8-14 and then finally the Fascist Youth Front from age 14-17. ...read more.

Middle

The Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) set up in 1925, was the replacement of socialist organisations for worker recreation and welfare. It was arguably one of the most popular aspects of the fascist regime. It provided workers with sporting and social activities. This included football teams, libraries, bars and cycling teams. On top of this, OND members were entitled to discounts on rail tickets, free concerts and plays and even family holidays/excursions. The OND would have made the fascist party popular because of the mass leisure that Italians would never have experienced before. However I would say that the members joined mostly for the benefits and not because they were loyal fascists. It was in some ways, a bribe offered to people to try and gain their support for the party. The OND was also kept completely ideologically free. This means that none of the activities that people were encouraged to take part in directly promoted fascist ideology or beliefs. So the OND, one of the fascist most popular schemes did not try or succeed in brainwashing the people into loyal Fascists. ...read more.

Conclusion

On the other hand, the Ministry of Popular Culture was never very organised and it was difficult to exploit modern mediums. Also, there was a lack of media in the south so it was hard to find a consensus for the support of fascism and so it was questionable if propaganda actually transformed Italian attitudes. Mussolini?s leadership was described by historians as the cult of il Duce. In the media, Mussolini was portrayed as a great leader with immense ability. There were over 30,000,000 posters of him in 2500 different poses, including many shirtless photos. This ensured that Mussolini appealed to everyone, he was a powerful leader, a modern sportsman and attractive to women. The cult of il Duce, in my opinion, only gained support for Mussolini and not PNF policies meaning that, unlike ancient Roman leaders, Mussolini would not leave a legacy behind. In conclusion, Mussolini evidently did not create a complete nation of loyal fascists between the years of 1926 and 1939. We know this from the youth policy, the lack of ideology in the OND, propaganda and the cult of il duce. I believe that the majority of support was for Mussolini himself, rather than the fascist regime. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. How far do you agree that, from 1924, Mussolini and his Fascists were in ...

    Whilst this cult of the personality was not as believed as with the likes of Stalin, Mussolini was widely liked and revered by Italians before 1935 and this genuine admiration allowed him to strengthen his position. Yet whilst the cult of personality created an image of genius, the centralisation of

  2. How successful was Mussolini in turning Italy into a nation of fascists?

    Balilla promoted loyalty to the regime above everything else; Rule 12 of the Balilla imprecates the following: When one finds one's self in the presence of people, even adults, who cast doubt on the fundamental political principles of the Regime, or who express lack of the faith in it's Leaders...one

  1. Mass media

    By 1926, Stalin had gained enough power to get rid of Trotsky for good. His manipulation and skilful personality managed to isolate Trotsky that great, that by 1929, Trotsky was no longer in the party or even the country as he was exiled from Stalin's orders.

  2. Stalin had fully consolidated his dictorship by 1935."With referene to the years 1929 to ...

    As a result of the Five Year Plans, by the end of 1930's, Russia had become a major industrial power. She was second in production only to the U.S.A. and Germany. In contrast with the defeat of Czarist Russia in the First World War, communist Russia could defeat even Germany in the Second World War.

  1. "Mussolini knew that he could never influence those with education and culture, so his ...

    Few people had radios although their numbers increased from 40 000 in 1927 to 1 million in 1938. This was renovated by the use of loud speakers in the piazzas and radios in village halls. Although disregarded by Mussolini at first, the radio became a favoured tool in reaching the 'ignorant masses' whether at work, home or even school.

  2. How far did Mussolini Succeed In creating a nation of fascists

    Boys were taught in the Balillia that fighting was a natural extension of the normal male lifestyle, girls were taught that giving birth and growing up to be good mothers was natural whilst for the boys, fighting was natural. As statistics show that just under half of boys did not

  1. "Mussolini was an all powerful dictator" - How accurate is this statement?

    the party, and this situation was in favour of Mussolini because a weaker party meant that Mussolini would be even more powerful, and they were less of a threat to his power. However there was still pressure from the ras, who were the radical section on the party, and lead

  2. British dominance was unrivalled during the period of 1850-1929. How far do you agree ...

    Once the twentieth century arrived, Britain was no longer solitary in its Navy, and the power it once inhibited was slowly revolving on a reversal effect. More issues arose between 1900 and 1910 when Germany began the production of a large fleet.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work