"The Venetian Empire was Essentially a Commercial Enterprise. Like all Good Businesses it Survived and Prospered by Changing With the Times." In What Ways and How Successfully did Venice Change With the Times During the Three Centuries After 1200?
J.C. Douglas-Hughes "The Venetian Empire was Essentially a Commercial Enterprise. Like all Good Businesses it Survived and Prospered by Changing With the Times." In What Ways and How Successfully did Venice Change With the Times During the Three Centuries After 1200? Before 1400 Venice was ruled by trade. Her naval superiority allowed her the opportunity not only to protect her trade routes but also to disrupt her enemies'. It was due to this supremacy that Venice was commissioned to provide a fleet for transport for the 4th crusade. Venetian naval dominance arose after the battle of Ascolon, from this the Venetians were able to gain an overwhelming amount of riches. The sea supremacy enabled the Venetians to plunder merchant ships. Venice had also been granted certain trading privileges by the Greek or Byzantine Empire who had given these in return for the Venetian support against the Normans. However when a new Emperor took over in Byzantine, he failed to renew the Venetian trading privileges. This caused the Venetian fleet to carry out raids on Greek islands, which eventually persuaded the new Emperor to renew the privileges. These privileges were from then consistently renewed by the successors of the Venetian Empire due to the Doge Ziani's skill in negotiating. The third crusade was manipulated by the Venetians to their advantage. Although they did not
Jacob Rogers-Martin Senior Project Paper 1/24/08 Themistocles The Persian War was a watershed moment in the Athenian subconscious. The victory of Greek beliefs of democracy and freedom over the far more dominant forces of tyranny and subjugation, fixed a dignified and god-given purpose in the Greek mindset. This period of history became known as the Greek "Golden Age," an age that engendered several cultural movements that became the cornerstones of Western civilization. Themistocles was a key figure in the dawning of the Golden Age. After being appointed the archon in 493 BC, Themistocles convinced the Athenians that naval expansion would be more beneficial in their defense system than ground attack. This decision aided in their defeat of Xerxes's Persians at the battle of Salamis, and was a catalyst leading to the Greek "Golden Age." Themistocles was born in a village named Phrearrhioi on the costal area of Attica. It was stated in Plutarch's, Life of Themistocles that he was "of a vehement and impetuous nature, of a quick apprehension, and a strong and aspiring bent for action and great affairs." (Plutarch)Themistocles' master often told him, "You, my boy, will be nothing small, but great one way or other, for good or else for bad." (Larsen, pg. 82) This prophecy was not fulfilled until Themistocles and Aristides (the just) entered office in 493 BC to fill the
Why did so many people go on Crusade? Jerusalem had been under Muslim rule since the 7th century, but pilgrimages were not cut off until the 11th century, when the Seljuk Turks began to interfere with Christian pilgrims. For Christians, the very name of Jerusalem evoked visions of the end of time and of the heavenly city. To help rescue the Holy Land fulfilled the ideal of the Christian knight. Papal encouragement, the hope of eternal merit, and the offer of indulgences motivated thousands to enrol in the cause1. Undoubtedly political considerations were also important. For many the Crusades were a response to appeals for help from the Byzantine Empire, threatened by the advance of the Seljuk Turks. The year 1071 had seen both the captures of Jerusalem and the decisive defeat of the Byzantine army at Miniskirt, created fear of further Turkish victories amongst those in the West. In addition, the hopes of the Papacy for the renunciation of East and West, the nobility's hunger for land at a time of crop failures, population pressure in the West, and an alternative to warfare at home were major impulses. However, the Church did not 'con' the warriors into going on crusade. The warriors were already convinced that God approved of their fighting, and that their warrior skills were more valuable to God than the clergy's praying. The warriors took up the concept of the
To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in French political instability 1689 - 1789?
To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in French political instability 1689 - 1789? On the 17th of June, 1789, the Estates-General was brought to an end by the majority of the Third Estate, outraged that their larger numbers counted for nothing, left to form the National Assembly which signalled the beginning of the French Revolution. What ensued was 10 years of political turmoil, war and mass killings, the result being a reformed nation using a more liberal system that many nations use today. There are many causes to the rise against the monarchy, many reasons the country plunged into chaos for a decade but how many of them were influenced by war between France and her greatest enemy, Britain? What effect did the period of wars known as the "Second Hundred Years War" have on France? France were the major power in Europe after the Franco-Dutch war in 1678, having gained several territories, Louis XIV was the most powerful monarch in Europe. However, this wasn't to last for long as Louis's desire for aggressive expansion, would eventually begin to cause France's downfall. The other leading nations in Europe had grown weary of Louis XIV's desire to expand, thus forming the Grand Alliance which consisted of the majority of Europe's powers bar France, with the goal of forcing France back to her borders as they were when Louis XIV took
War and Peace in the Middle East 'Chapter 1-2' Page 3. . What was the main aim of the Zionists? The main aim of the Zionists was to find a Jewish national home. 2. Study source D carefully. For many years after this letter was published many Jews regarded the Balfour Declaration as a promise from the British government to help set us a Jewish state. a. Does it read like a promise? Yes it does. b. If so, a promise to do what? The Balfour Declaration was a promise to the Zionists, where they would make Palestine the national home for the Jewish people. c. What does this document say about the non-Jews in Palestine? Why? It says that Palestine becoming the national home for the Jewish people, and the immigration of the Jews will not affect or harm the 'civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine...' This is to appease the non-Jews of having to share land with the Jewish. Page 5. . Read source B. a. Who is the 'oppressive tyrant'? The Turkish. b. How does the writer think the Arabs should achieve their independence? The writer thinks that the Arabs should achieve their independence by staying united and to revolt against the oppressive tyrant. c. What evidence is there to suggest that the writer does not wish to see several independent Arab nations emerge? Evidence to suggest that the writer doesn't wish to see several
Explain how Cavour strengthened Piedmont between his coming to power and 1859? Cavour during the 1850's had a large role to play within Piedmont itself, due to the failed revolutionary period prior to the 1850's, there where many reforms that he implemented and aspects of attitudes that he influenced. In the policy that Cavour implemented there where specific aims that he placed on Piedmont and Italy, this was his Domestic Policy and the aims that where established where, the restriction of church power, Reducing the radical threat of revolution, the stabilisation of politics and also to develop Piedmont's strength economically. The restriction of the church was established through the Catholic church being the recognised church in Piedmont. In 1850 the Siccardi laws where introduced, these laws controlled the power of the church, these laws where different to most because they where passed without consultation with the church. The Siccardi laws where not set up by Cavour but rather he expressed a large amount of support towards the laws. The reasoning being of the anti-clerical views that the Siccardi laws represented, in that if the church has less influential power it paved the way for political power and influence to grow and have more impact, therefore benefiting him. The Statuto was the ruling of which Piedmont was now under, article 5 under this ruling stated that
To what extent was England subordinate to Williams concerns in Normandy? To answer the question whether England was subordinate to Williams's concerns in Normandy we need to look at the events that were occurring in England and in Normandy around the years of 1075. Between the years of 1074-1075 William King of England lived in Normandy. By 1069 William had conquered the north and south of England and built many castles. Chester was the last township to fall in 1070.This was a period of unhappiness and unrest. Saxon England was constantly on the verge of rebellion, which was a constant concern for William throughout his reign. In 1075 a group of Norman knights and one surviving Saxon leader, Waltheof revolted and fought a battle but lost. Waltherof was a Saxon Earl half trusted by William the Conqueror. William made further efforts to win his loyalty by marrying him to his niece Judith and giving him the earldom of Northumbria in 1072. Waltherof joined the revolt of the Norman earls in 1075 and was once again defeated much like the revolt of 1069. The revolt of the Earls was the last major resistance of Williams control throughout the Norman Conquest. It was caused by Williams's refusal to sanction the marriage between Emma and Ralph de Guader in 1075. This was due to William had been living in Normandy betwenn 1074 1075.The revolt In William's absence, Ralph, his new
Assess Louis' achievements in foreign policy by 1684. Account for his success in this period. After the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, Louis XIV decided to rule by himself. By 1684, Louis' foreign policy had enabled him to make significant gains in terms of land, gloire and hegemony. As a result, Louis was able to considerably increase national security and French status in Europe. While between 1559 and 1661 France was the sick man of Europe and constantly exploited and invaded, there had been no question of that during Louis' personal rule. In the 17th century, France was surrounded by the Hapsburg countries of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire (Circle of Burgundy). This made Louis feel unsafe and threatened. With the added factor of the Bourbon-Hapsburg dynastic struggle, Louis had to somehow improve his country's security and make sure that France wouldn't be abused or invaded by the encircling Hapsburg powers. In terms of land, Louis was able to make strategically important gains after the two wars and the Policy of Reunions. In the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle, which ended the War of Devolution, Louis gained land in the Spanish Netherlands, namely Dunkirk, Aire, Lille, Tournai, and Charleroi. These areas strengthened the north-eastern border which had been the entrance for the Spanish invasion during the Frondes. Similarly, France retained Franche-Comté and towns in
Chartist- Introduction Key Questions ) What caused working people to protest so vigorously and so consistently for political change? 2) What did Chartists believe? 3) Was Chartist just a movement of economically depressed workers? 4) Was Chartist a national movement? 5) Can Chartist be seen as expression of working class solidarity? 6) Was Chartist a failure? Key Ideas ) Ideas for Chartist not new- Paine "Rights of Man", 1815-20, mass platform and post war radicalism, Henry Hunt. 2) Chartism's strength fluctuated- peaks 1838-9, 1841-2, and 1848. 3) Genuinely national movement- although stronger in some areas than others. 4) Chartist alarmed authorities- government's response measured- avoided creating martyrs. 5) Number of plans made for general uprising- for some Chartist revolutionary. 6) Chartist capable of uniting large numbers of working people in support of democracy. What was the Peoples Charter? ) Vote for all adult males- over 21. 2) Payment for MP's. 3) Each constituency- same size 4) Secret ballot 5) No property qualifications- MP's should be required to have property. 6) General elections once a year. Peoples Charter * Formed by London Working Men's Association- May 1838- William Lovett worked with Francis Place and Joseph Roebuck Eric Evans- "It was a highly political document: none of its terms had to do with wages, conditions of work or
To what extent was the South African War (1899 - 1902) a capitalist war? Throughout history the study of the causes of conflict has often been found more interesting that the results. The South African War (also referred to as the Boer War) was particularly fascinating for the amount of contestation over its beginnings. The difficulty it understanding how the Boer War began could be down to its nature as a war of the Empire, making Britain's role in it a slightly touchier subject and harder to make more facts known. The almost conspiratorial confusion surrounding the origins of the South African War has led many individuals from contemporary to recent years to comment upon it; from the economist J. A. Hobson and Bolshevik leader Lenin to historians Iain Smith and A. N. Porter. In examining whether the South African War could be described as a capitalist war it is important to outline the various forms of capitalism that can be taken into account. The first is that of the external forces: the war was primarily fought with the capitalist priorities of the British government in mind (particularly over South Africa's vast mineral resources). The second is that the South African War was fought domestically between the capitalist mine owners, the British-owned, South African press and the independent Afrikaner (Boer) Republic. The argument on the origins of the