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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Extended Essay: Bismarck and The Unification of Germany

    5 star(s)

    this land provided her with valuable coal and iron resources. Prussia became quite rich due to trade with other countries and many of the smaller states realised that they could benefit from trade with each other. Trade between states was very difficult so to encourage trade, Prussia established a customs union in 1818. Member states would not have to pay taxes as goods were transported from one state to another. By 1836, this union was called the Zollverien and had 25 member states, equating to around 26 million people. As trade increased, ideas spread and the states realised that they benefited from closer contact with each other.

    • Word count: 2468
  2. Marked by a teacher

    How important were the events at Mnster 1534-5 in causing the failure of the Radical Reformation ?

    4 star(s)

    Then in January 1534 Anabaptist missionaries visited and baptised many of the Lutheran Town Council. By February an Anabaptist council had been elected and when Matthys and Bockelson arrived they took control and proclaimed the town was a 'New Jerusalem'. By this time however the Bishop of M´┐Żnster had organised the recapture of the town. The fact that it was the actions of a few individuals proves that the religion as a whole was not interested in conquest or battle. After Matthys died in an attempt to break the siege Bockelson took control and an extreme rise took place where he proclaimed himself a prophet and lived in luxury while the people starved.

    • Word count: 1374
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Was the War Measures act necessary for the October Crisis

    4 star(s)

    This kidnapping occurred after a meeting with Laporte discussing the threats of the FLQ; after he denied the demands he was quickly taken. The group that took him were the Chenier Cell, a division of the FLQ who were responsible for this and many other robberies in Quebec. The War Measures act was called in on October 16th, after many rally's supporting the FLQ took place and it was requested. The act was fully supported by all 3 opposing parties.

    • Word count: 1266
  4. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in French political instability 1689 - 1789?

    3 star(s)

    This caused the complete opposite of what Louis wanted to happen, rather than separating the German princes it caused them to unify, posing quite a formidable resistance to France. During this conflict in Germany, William III of Orange, who was Louis XIV's main rival in terms of power, invaded England with the intent of bringing the English into the war on the side of the coalition. Having successfully invaded English in 1689 and had them declare war on the French, William finally had the coalition he wanted.

    • Word count: 2768
  5. Assess the importance of humanitarian and missionary activity in creating a larger African Empire for Great Britain during the period from 1868 to 1902?

    This led to Britain forming a formal Empire, to ensure Britain's name as a superpower was maintained. Missionary motives were that of British people who were sent to Africa to persuade people to follow their principles, for example Christianity. Missionary and humanitarian activity which was activity concerned with or seeking to promote human welfare. The British public were commonly informed that missionary and humanitarian motive were the most important motive. Many people from the period of 1868 to 1902 believed that Britain had an obligation to bring civilization to the people of Africa, the British government claimed its mission in Africa was to civilise the natives there - "the White man's burden".

    • Word count: 1882
  6. The Indian Mutiny

    Therefore, if their crop had not produced the same amount of money as years before, they were still required to pay the same tax, creating a large burden on their already decreasing income. The increase in the Company's economic power and control resulted in hardship for the Indian people and this became a major cause of the Indian mutiny. The Company's flourishing economic status resulted in a British attitude of superiority, demonstrated through their confident involvement in the Indian government.

    • Word count: 2104
  7. Does Peter I of Russia deserve the title 'The Great'?

    The prestige of a monarch contributed significantly to whether he was considered 'Great' or not. This can be applied to Louis XIV who elevated his image by creating a fabulous court at Versailles and by adopting the motifs 'le roi soleil' (sun king) and 'nec pluribus impar' (not equal to many) to describe himself. This meant that many contemporaries and successors alike considered him 'Great'. In the early part of his reign, Peter's court was bare and was only used for functional, practical reasons.

    • Word count: 1110
  8. Bog Bodies. Preserved bodies are crucial to historians in unravelling information on past civilisations. The nature of the bodies and the conclusions that can be drawn allow a scientific outlook on their lives.

    The copper axe head indicates that ancient civilisations of Otzi's time had access to copper tools and weapons. The evidence of copper along with DNA testing provided further evidence that Otzi lived during the Copper Age, from 3500 to 2300 BC. In addition to this, at the time, Otzi's axe would have been an invaluable possession as it was important as both a tool and a status symbol for the owner. This implies that Otzi was of high status in society. Preserved bodies are crucial to historians in unravelling the accessibility of technology at certain times in the past and subsequently the progress of which mankind has been developing, allowing a greater understanding of the lifestyles of past civilisations.

    • Word count: 1151
  9. Evidence for the Trojan War.

    The city was described as a bustling trade centre due to its primary location. Troy itself was a coastal city, allowing easy trade through ships coming across the Black Sea. This primary geographic location gave Troy much control over the Dardanelles, benefitting the city economically. Furthermore, magnetic imaging surveys of the fields below the citadel by Korfmann provides evidence of a lower settlement and a deep ditch, indicating that Troy was in fact fifteen times larger than previously thought. This discovery along with its primary geographic location increases the probability that Troy would have been an object of desire and likely target for potential empires.

    • Word count: 1030
  10. Theories for the decline of the Mayan Civilisations

    Archaeologists and historians have been able to uncover thousands of Mayan housing foundations connected to paved roads in between the large cities, suggesting urban sprawl. This is reliable as it is environmental evidence. With the growth of the population came a dangerous vulnerability; the Mayans became unable to adapt to their rapidly changing environment. After extensive research, many archaeologists agree that it is most likely that the Mayans were subject to a lengthened period of severe drought that affected most of Central America.

    • Word count: 872
  11. What Did Charlemagne Do While In Power As King?

    Aquitaine, in south-western Gaul, and just before his death in 768 Pepin arranged to leave his kingdom jointly divided between him and his brother. In 768, on their father's death, Charlemagne and Carloman succeeded as joint kings of the Franks, controlling between them a realm which embraced modern France and a large part of modern Germany. On Carloman's death in 771, Charlemagne became sole ruler of the Franks. Charlemagne's reign was marked by almost annual military activity, beginning with the completion of Pepin's campaigns to restore Aquitaine to Frankish rule during 760-768AD, continuing with the conquest of Lombardy, in northern

    • Word count: 1464
  12. How important was war as a factor in the emergence of Britain as an imperial power by 1763?

    In the Treaty, not only did Britain successfully negotiate to damage French imperial ambition by renouncing Louis' nephew's right to the French kingship - but also secured the islands of Menorca and Gibraltar, strengthening trade routes and compounding Britain's prestige. The role of war increased even further as Britain's involvement in conflict became less reactive - initiating the Seven Years War to weaken French and Spanish influence in North America and India, rather than simply rising to battle when external factors demanded it, as in the Wars of Spanish Succession, and the earlier Nine Years' War, prompted by Louis XIV's invasion of the German provinces of Mannheim and Mainz.

    • Word count: 700
  13. Do you agree that economic and social reasons were a key trigger in the practice of witch hunting?

    out of their house and what little money they earned was spent scarcely on only the most basic neccesities such as food but even that was in short supply. Females were the ones who were most accused and this may be due to being affected by or resisting the effects of changes in the structure of the family and a growth of the unattached female population. Famine, outbreaks of epidemic diseases and the many war casualties may have also helped to trigger witch hunts.

    • Word count: 848
  14. Assess the view that Philip II as king of Spain was Absolute in Theory but Limited in practice

    Christ"; therefore shows that Philip was absolute in theory as he was considered as an incarnation in comparison to the son of God. In respect this, Philip was known for his strong belief in the Catholic faith and defended anyone going go against the catholic faith. Therefore as, debated by historians, as one of the most devout Catholic kings in the Fifteenth Century. In addition to this, the Tridentine Decrees were enforced by Philip's own action of unrestricted power, which demonstrate how much Philip was above the law in order to control the church.

    • Word count: 1927
  15. a***s the contribution of the Jesuits to the Catholic revival in the Sixteenth Century

    Reasons for this were because of the lack of education which was what the Jesuits contributed to improve clerical standards of the church. The orthodox view is that it was in Germany that the Jesuits achieved most effects during the sixteenth century. For example, Since there was a fear that Protestantism was realistically going to take over the whole of Germany Peter Canisuis, who was the first German Jesuit (1543), founded the first German Jesuit College in Sicily and continued to uphold the claims and teachings of the Catholic Church which eventually stunning the protestant spread, most specifically in the south of Germany.

    • Word count: 1536
  16. Robespierre fell when the Terror had outlived its usefulness- How far do you agree with this explanation of coup 9 Thermidor?

    This decline in support for Robespierre and contributed to the events coup of 9 Thermidor. However many certainly became disillusioned with the brutality of government by terror. The revolutionary tribunal and the committee of General Security had in combination sent any thousands to the guillotine, and many lives were lost during the Great Terror in Paris in 1794. Many people believed many of the victims of the Terror to be innocent of any wrongdoing or any plots against the republic.

    • Word count: 1138
  17. The colonists of Jamestown had to overcome many hardships upon their arrival. They were confronted with Indian conflicts, environmental factors, starvation, and diseases; which contributed to many of their deaths.

    When the colonists first arrived, their food supply ran out, and they believed that the Indians would help them. However, they did not because they were they were angered by Francis West's actions while he was trying to trade corn with the Patawomeke Indians. The colonists soon realized that they would need to grow their own crops in order to survive; however, they were soon faced with what the settlers called "starving time." During the winter of 1609 through 1610, Jamestown was faced with a drought. Without water, the crops were unable to grow which led to hunger, starvation, and death.

    • Word count: 590
  18. Research Paper; The Important Scientific Discoveries of the Renaissance: Medicine

    The understanding of ancient medical knowledge, as of other branches of science, was of course conditioned by social and cultural factors that changed over time.i For example, what began in Greece even before the Renaissance was where some of the oldest examples of Greek scientific writing and observations to base medical treatment were found; in medical treatises (written studies of a subject). Treatises like the ones about the "epidemics" of that time show that some authors were exceptionally aware medical observers who acquired notable ability to describe the signs and course of disease in individual patients.ii After taking in most of this new knowledge, Greek approaches to medicine began to include diverse and contradictory approaches.

    • Word count: 2929
  19. How important was the Council of Trent to the reform of the Catholic Church

    Also they were able to improve standards in the Church and were able to set higher standards and some form of discipline. It was important that the corrupt nature and decreasing standards of the Church to be addressed and the Council of Trent allowed them to do this and the reformation was better for it. Though the Council of Trent allowed the Catholic Church to change attitudes and set new standards, it also allowed them to focus on resisting the Protestant advance.

    • Word count: 798
  20. Reign of Louis XIV - major events and politics revision notes.

    Weakened nobles pwr-ordered them 2 take down their fortified castles- incr. pwr of gov agents from middle class -wanted 2 make France the strongest state in Europe -greatest obstacle= Hapsburg Rulers- land surrounded France -involved France in the 30 Years War Writers Turn Toward Skepticism -idea that nothing can ever be known for certain -doubt toward churches that claimed they have the only correct set of doctrines Montaigne & Descartes -Michel de Montaigne developed new form of literature-essay-breif work that expresses a person's thought & opinions -ideas replace themselves -humans could never have absolute ideas on what is true -Rene Descartes-Meditations on First Philosophy-skeptical argument that one could never be certain

    • Word count: 834
  21. Explain whether or not Erasmus intended to undermine the Catholic Church (12 marks)

    This behavior sows him not trying to undermine the church as if this was his intention it is much more likely he would have made it clear what he had found This is a correct point but not very well-explained. Why did it mean one less sacrament, which sacrament was lost and why?

    • Word count: 572
  22. How far was personal gain the motivation for Imperial Princes to join Luthers Reformation? 24m

    This would motivate the Imperial Princes to support Luther as they would greatly benefit from the change in authority; an example of this is Albrecht of Hohenzollern, who was the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who controlled land from Eastern Poland up to the Baltic State of Estonia. When he officially became Lutheran in 1525 he shut down the order of knights and took all their land for himself. A nice clear point, well made and argued with a good example.

    • Word count: 1178
  23. Explain how Luthers background and personal experiences made him likely to rebel against the Catholic Church 12m

    He dedicated his life to god and reaching heaven, carrying out good deeds for the grace he already had not believing the churches teaching that ordination meant automatic entrance to heaven and that you did good deeds to achieve grace. This struggle to get to heaven may have been what lead him to the idea of "sola fide" which translates to "faith alone" and was the idea that you only needed faith to get to heaven. All correct but how did these things make him into a rebel?

    • Word count: 940
  24. Free essay

    Minoan Society. One of the first cultures in Greece, the Minoans on the island of Crete, arose around 2800 B.C. Much about this civilization remains a mystery because of the nature of the evidence.

    While sailing about, the Greeks stumbled across a tribe of people living on the island of Crete. These people, the Minoans, were a very advanced civilization for the time. They had a strong navy, which was probably why the Greeks never succeeded in colonizing the Minoan people. The island of Crete was covered with mountains and valleys. The rich soil and mild climate made it an excellent place to live. Using the fertile land, the Minoans produced cereals, vegetables, flax, oils, and grapes.

    • Word count: 792
  25. Teotihuacan is especially famous for its large pyramids dedicated to the Sun and the Moon. The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica.

    Teotihuacan is especially famous for its large pyramids dedicated to the Sun and the Moon. The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica. The name comes from the Aztecs, who visited Teotihuacan centuries after it was abandoned. Found along the Avenue of the Dead, in between the Pyramid of the Moon and the Ciudadela, the pyramid is part of a large complex in the heart of the city. As the focal point for Teotihuacan's urban layout, it is built over earlier structures, perhaps even tombs of rulers.

    • Word count: 713

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the violence in Western society the MAIN reason for the deve1opment of the idea of Holy War?

    "In conclusion, violence in Western society was undoubtedly a contributory factor in the development of Holy War, but it was the cunning of the Catholic Church that created the final result. From successfully exploiting the contradictions found within the Old Testament, to glorifying warfare with the promise of the eternal reward, the Church tailored the concept of war in alignment with Christian tenets and ideals; an ideology that would come to form the bedrock of the Crusades. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

  • Assess to what extent was Louis XIVs foreign policy less successful after 1684.

    "In conclusion, the foreign policy in the latter half of Louis' reign was clearly less successful than pre-1684. In terms of achievements she had secured her status in Europe by acquiring the Spanish Succession, which ensured that she was no longer surrounded by Hapsburgs; Louis had built a Bourbon base in Western Europe which would secure and strengthen both France and Spain. He also left behind a legacy of unprecedented French supremacy during which France was arguably the most powerful country in the world. However, there were failures from his foreign policy as well. The North-Eastern and Eastern frontiers was yet again weakened by the loss of lands which he had worked so hard to acquire before 1684. Furthermore, he left his successor with a Europe united in hatred of France who wanted to curb French power and hegemony."

  • To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the First Crusade (1096-99)?

    "In conclusion, there are many reasons as to why the First Crusade was a success, but it was the disunity in the Muslim world that was the most crucial, as had the Muslims been unified, it is debatable whether the Crusaders would have ever made it to Jerusalem. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

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