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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How important were the events at Mnster 1534-5 in causing the failure of the Radical Reformation ?

    4 star(s)

    Then in January 1534 Anabaptist missionaries visited and baptised many of the Lutheran Town Council. By February an Anabaptist council had been elected and when Matthys and Bockelson arrived they took control and proclaimed the town was a 'New Jerusalem'. By this time however the Bishop of M´┐Żnster had organised the recapture of the town. The fact that it was the actions of a few individuals proves that the religion as a whole was not interested in conquest or battle. After Matthys died in an attempt to break the siege Bockelson took control and an extreme rise took place where he proclaimed himself a prophet and lived in luxury while the people starved.

    • Word count: 1374
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Was the War Measures act necessary for the October Crisis

    4 star(s)

    This kidnapping occurred after a meeting with Laporte discussing the threats of the FLQ; after he denied the demands he was quickly taken. The group that took him were the Chenier Cell, a division of the FLQ who were responsible for this and many other robberies in Quebec. The War Measures act was called in on October 16th, after many rally's supporting the FLQ took place and it was requested. The act was fully supported by all 3 opposing parties.

    • Word count: 1266
  3. How far was personal gain the motivation for Imperial Princes to join Luthers Reformation? 24m

    This would motivate the Imperial Princes to support Luther as they would greatly benefit from the change in authority; an example of this is Albrecht of Hohenzollern, who was the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who controlled land from Eastern Poland up to the Baltic State of Estonia. When he officially became Lutheran in 1525 he shut down the order of knights and took all their land for himself. A nice clear point, well made and argued with a good example.

    • Word count: 1178
  4. Early Jamestown: Why Did So Many Colonists Die? In early Jamestown, from 1607 to 1610, 452 colonists died even though Jamestown was supplied with 560 colonists.

    Many colonists died in early Jamestown because of their horrible relations with the Native Americans. This is shown by document D which shows a trading incident between the Native Americans and the settlers. Francis West and thirty six men sailed up the Bay to try to trade for corn. Instead, the settlers received grain after "some harshe and crewell dealinge by the cut of towe of the salvages heads and other extrymetyes." This lost all trust between the two groups, if there was some before. This also shows the tension between the two groups and the unwillingness to benefit from each other, essentially and mostly on the colonist's part.

    • Word count: 1118
  5. To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the First Crusade (1096-99)?

    When the People's Crusade arrived in the East their forces were not considered to be overly dangerous. Indeed, they were little more than an army of peasants, and Kilij Arslan's forces slaughtered almost all thirty thousand. As well as not taking this threat seriously, the Muslim leaders did not comprehend that this attack was anything more than a raid. This proved to be a bad move by the Muslims, as when the first wave of crusaders laid siege to Nicaea, Kilij Arslan was away fighting the Danishmends. When he returned to try and lift the siege, he found himself outnumbered and was subsequently defeated, as he had no allies to augment his forces.

    • Word count: 1043
  6. The British Raj has lasted many centuries and led to numerous transformations in the Indian economy. Britain changed Indias economy including, technology, agriculture, employment opportunities, and introduced the country to world trade. British imperia

    India was being upgraded and civilized. Although Britain's main reason for developing modern technologies was mainly for profit and selling goods such as textiles and machines, Britain also benefited India. Technological developments made the wealth of India increase. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century railways, bridges, canals, and roads were building quickly which made life easier. Scholor Ambirajan argues that the railway in India was the biggest economic advancement (Ambirajan 250). The railway had many advantages such as having a mobile army and transporting goods and services more quickly across the country.

    • Word count: 1411
  7. Explain the external problems Spain faced on the accession of Philip II in 1556 and comment on Philip's style of leadership.

    Finally a major worry for Philip was the growth of Protestantism in Europe. Philip was determined to stamp out heresy in his kingdom so at the same time he had to make sure that it did not spread in from places such as Geneva. Spain was a major Catholic power so he also attempted to maintain relations with the Pope, which was not easy as Charles had sacked Rome before and the Pope's territories bordered with Philip's Italian lands, hence the Pope often felt threatened by Philip and this made maintaining good relations a more difficult task.

    • Word count: 1117
  8. Explain Philip IIs relationship with the Papacy. How far was Philip II responsible for the outbreak of the revolts of the Moriscos, Perez and Aragon?

    This fear of Spanish dominance led to the pope rejecting Philip's claim to become protector of French Catholics after the death of Henry III, making matters difficult for Philip and worsening relations. The Pope and Philip did cooperate on occasions, such as when the Holy League was formed against the Turks. Philip, although reluctant, obliged to join the League and they achieved a great military victory at Lepanto, inflicting the Turks' worst naval defeat. However the celebrations did not last as to the pope's annoyance, Philip made peace with the Muslim Turks.

    • Word count: 1020
  9. Explain how Philip II became King of Portugal in 1581. Although Philip II devoted most of his time to foreign affairs, his foreign policy was a failure. To what extent would you accept this verdict?

    Foreign powers such as England supported Don Antonio so Philip acted quickly. He assembled an army and marched into Portugal, entering Lisbon without meeting much resistance and easily defeating Don Antonio. After this Philip was crowned King in 1581 and lived in Lisbon between 1580-83. He was wise to make minimal changes to the way Portugal was governed and it tradition were maintained. A Council of Portugal was set up and Viceroys were picked from native nobility. This minimized opposition to his rule and the take over of Portugal can be seen as a great success with many benefits outweighing the difficulties it brought.

    • Word count: 1062
  10. How far do you agree that the impetus (momentum, thrust) of science experienced in Europe between 1500 and 1700 was indeed a revolution?

    This was not only written as a philosophy, but many scientists recognised the precedence of experimentation before formulation of scientific facts. For example, Galileo Galilei was a notable scientist who refuted the initially accepted notions that objects of different masses would fall at different rates. During his experimentation, he took great care in isolating variables, such as, when he was experimenting with balls rolling down inclined planes, he took great care in polishing the planes smooth. His systematic method of experimentation allowed him to deduce the fundamental principles of modern mechanics. Furthermore, his equations were verifiable in many different situations.

    • Word count: 1499
  11. Assess the Reign of Amenhotep III

    Moreover, Amenhotep's self-proclaimed deification during his reign (as opposed to traditional post-mortem apotheosis), in particular temples of worship built for himself and Tiye at Soleb and Sedeinga respectively, reinforces his imperative of asserting his power/control over conquered regions of Kush/Nubia, which represented the wild or chaos a deity warrior-pharaoh must contain. Additionally, Nubia was the quintessential source of Egypt's prosperity providing gold in the "abundance of dust", as quoted by a vassal in one Amarna correspondence; and hence funded a large majority of Amenhotep's extensive building programs- to the extent of achieving status as the most prolific builder of 18th Dynasty Egypt, with traces of his buildings being found throughout Lower, Middle, and Upper Egypt.

    • Word count: 1807
  12. what role did desmond tutu have in the role to end apartheid

    described, an area rich inculture, history and hope.(Samuel Willard Crompton 23) Father Huddleston organised a couple of peace marchers, "despite protests and increasing notice from thw world community of nations"(Samuel Willard Crompton 23), but still nothing changed. The apartheid regime "leveled Sophiatown and replaced it with a suburb called Triomf"(Samuel Willard Crompton 23) Tutu passed his exams and recieved his license in theology 1960"(Samuel Willard Crompton 25) protests against Apartheid gained strength in the 1950s(Samuel Willard Crompton 26) onwards. Leaders such a Nelson Mandela and Albert Luthuli protested the entire system of apartheid(Samuel Willard Crompton 26).

    • Word count: 1621
  13. Who was more important in bringing about the end of Apartheid and minority rule in South Africa, Nelson Mandela or President De Klerk?

    Mandela formed a new group called "Umkhonto we Sizwe" (Spear of the People) who aimed to sabotage government property in order to get attention, however they tried not to endanger life. Mandela built immense support from 1960-62 in South Africa and abroad organizing campaigns of sabotage. Mandela was caught by the police and sentenced to life imprisonment at Riviona trials from 1962-1963. Mandela stuck to his principals and refused to renounce beliefs at the trial, he also said a powerful speech which greatly increased his national and international fame and raised the profile of ANC and its cause.

    • Word count: 1763
  14. How important were the ideas of the Humanists in weakening the authority of the Church in the years before the Reformation?

    I will also discuss other Humanist factors that also helped to weaken the church and other outside factors as well. Erasmus had written 5 key works in which he conveyed his views on religion, the problems with the Catholic Church and how to live your life properly. "Adages" was a basic introduction into the life of Humanism and was thought of as a, "Compendium of classical proverbs and quotations". It showed the literary style and eloquence of the classical literature, proof of the demand for the intellectual and rhetorical style of classical writers and conveyed the wisdom of the ancients.

    • Word count: 1874
  15. How important was the role of the princes in bringing about the success of the Lutheran Reformation in Germany in the years 1525 to 1555?

    In response to the League of Dessau that went against Lutheranism, Hesse formed the League of Torgau. This set to oppose the terms set out in the Edict of Worms(1521) and although had no military presence at this point would later roll into the Schmalkaldic League. Also present at the second Diet of Speyer which would prove very important as it was here that arose the name "Protestant". Hesse also organised the Marburg Colloquy which helped to bring together the Lutheran equivalents for example Zwingli and Melanchthon to discuss and agree on various points.

    • Word count: 1496
  16. Indian mutiny

    In particular, one Indian critic's view of Macaulay's Minute- B B Majumdar argued 'after educating the Natives to be their equals, continue to treat them as inferiors...are they not in affect undoing all that they have done, unteaching the Native all that he has been taught, and pursuing a suicidal policy...' this did cause major controversy, but too only a small number of Indians. However, I believe this reactions from the Indian people provides an incite into how they felt Britain was imposing on their culture, and this along with other British policy's would have only escalated the feelings of the few Indian people this affected.

    • Word count: 1353
  17. Julius Caesars reform

    - Gaius Julius Caesar was a roman senator, praetor, supporter and brother-in-law of Gaius Marius (his sister husband). - His father had been only a moderate political success, only got up to being a praetor but not the consul. - Other parts of his family Aurelian were part of the plebeian nobility and have many consuls. - Aurelia cotta his mother. - Apparently an exemplar of the disciplined roman matrona - her father was a consul in 119BC, her parternal grandfather was also consul, 3 of her half-brothers were consuls (Macqaurie HSC ancient history) - His aunt Julia (father's sister)

    • Word count: 1329
  18. The Movie Alexander the Great

    Philip then divorces Olympias because of her unfaithfulness and marries his mistress, Eurydice, who is the niece of one of his generals Attlaus. This ends up causing problems between Alexander and his father because if they have a son it would be more likely to become king since Alexander is only half Macedonian, and that child would be full blood Macedonian. Also, because Attalaus called Alexander a bastard, which caused a fight and Philip went at his son with a knife.

    • Word count: 1495
  19. Louis XIV won the Dutch War but lost the peace. Discuss

    However, if Louis motive was to strengthen his borders, then the Dutch War could also be seen as a failure, as the Dutch still remained a threat as their country wasn't totally conquered. Also, Amsterdam was never captured by Louis, which could be seen as a failure as the capital city was still in the power of the Dutch. Secondly, another motive for Louis invading the Dutch could be because the Dutch are Republican and Protestant. Under the reign of Louis XIV, France was a very Catholic country, which was evident as Louis himself was named the "Sun King" and the "Most Catholic King".

    • Word count: 1134
  20. The Pendle Witches - A Story of Witchcraft and Revenge

    This being because the tale was well documented and the tale was made a book, The Wonderful Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster. England wasn't a country that devoted a lot of resources to persecuting accused witches through the courts compared with most. England was reasonably safe for those who were either thought to practice magical arts, or who allowed people to think they did. All over mainland Europe, widespread torture and execution of witches was underway at this time, while in England many cases never even made it to the courts, apparently since a lot of magistrates simply didn't believe in witchcraft or black magic.

    • Word count: 1317
  21. How far was the Russo-Japanese war responsible for the 1905 revolution

    Nicholas' adviser was more confident than he was; furthermore he was easily influenced by the 10 member of his ministerial council showing that he shied away from responsibility. All of this contributed to a rebellion atmosphere as opposition such as the Liberals did not think it was right to have a Tsar who could not even maintain ultimate power which essentially defeats the point of the tsar. institutional government. He denied basic freedom such as free press , freedom to form national parties , no concessions to nationalities any protests were repressed.

    • Word count: 1236
  22. The most important pre-requisite for a civilization to reach its Golden Age

    Having a strong leader in the government will ensure the civilization's safety against threats. Thus, the citizens will feel safe and peaceful when there is no fear of any danger coming their way. Hence, the people of the civilization will have no unrest and can be at peace. When they are at peace, artists and scientists can then focus their time on the arts and sciences, developing it and thus helping the civilization progress into its golden age. A case in point would be the Gupta Dynasty, with good leaders such as Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta II, where Samudra was not only a good military leader, but he was also a patron of the arts, promoting it and helping the Gupta civilization thrive during its Golden Age.

    • Word count: 1013
  23. To what extent was Napoleon a Dictator

    After centralising power he then sets about by strengthening his power. He increased personal power through his control of an enlarged senate, controlling everything not controlled by the Constitution, so Napoleon's power by this point is almost absolute. He tops things off when he purged the Tribunate in 1802 as it criticised Code Napoleon, which was a threat to Napoleon's absolute power, thus had its powers taken away. Proof of Napoleon's new power was the Duc d'Enghien who was judicially murdered because he was found guilty of conspiracy, but he was kidnapped from neutral ground.

    • Word count: 1159
  24. Why did Britain not establish an independant Palestine jointly ruled by Arabs and Jews

    This promise was further reiterated by General Allenby 's declaration in December 1917 when occupying Palestine stated "The object of war in the East on the part of Great Britain was the complete and final liberation of all peoples formerly oppressed by the Turks and the establishment of national governments". Hence the Arabs expected the acknowledgement and help of Britain in creating an Arab independent state. Yet matters were complicated with the Balfour Declaration in December 1917. This document written by Arthur Balfour, foreign Secretary, to Lord Walter Rothchild , leader of the British Jewish Community, stated that the British

    • Word count: 1803
  25. To what extent was the Northern Renaissance influenced by the Italian Renaissance

    This special relationship is shown in the number of French royalties that married into the Medici family, who extended their reach from Florence into the Papacy in Rome. The papacy was very open to Northern Europe and frequently sent diplomats and ambassadors to these Catholic countries; Pioggio, a Florentine humanist, and Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, both served as papal ambassadors in the Low Countries, this would influence the Northern Renaissance in the spread of Italian humanist ideas. Above all, the pilgrimages to Rome that many Catholic underwent allowed Northern Europe to exchange a great amount of ideas - Catherine

    • Word count: 1216

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the violence in Western society the MAIN reason for the deve1opment of the idea of Holy War?

    "In conclusion, violence in Western society was undoubtedly a contributory factor in the development of Holy War, but it was the cunning of the Catholic Church that created the final result. From successfully exploiting the contradictions found within the Old Testament, to glorifying warfare with the promise of the eternal reward, the Church tailored the concept of war in alignment with Christian tenets and ideals; an ideology that would come to form the bedrock of the Crusades. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

  • Assess to what extent was Louis XIVs foreign policy less successful after 1684.

    "In conclusion, the foreign policy in the latter half of Louis' reign was clearly less successful than pre-1684. In terms of achievements she had secured her status in Europe by acquiring the Spanish Succession, which ensured that she was no longer surrounded by Hapsburgs; Louis had built a Bourbon base in Western Europe which would secure and strengthen both France and Spain. He also left behind a legacy of unprecedented French supremacy during which France was arguably the most powerful country in the world. However, there were failures from his foreign policy as well. The North-Eastern and Eastern frontiers was yet again weakened by the loss of lands which he had worked so hard to acquire before 1684. Furthermore, he left his successor with a Europe united in hatred of France who wanted to curb French power and hegemony."

  • To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the First Crusade (1096-99)?

    "In conclusion, there are many reasons as to why the First Crusade was a success, but it was the disunity in the Muslim world that was the most crucial, as had the Muslims been unified, it is debatable whether the Crusaders would have ever made it to Jerusalem. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

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