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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods
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on a few occasions rose up against their Christian brothers, and had to be put down by the Greeks, there were also arguments between the Greeks and the Latins, particularly over the incident at Nicaea, where the Latins appear to have forgotten that the city was to be re-inhabited and were substiquently appalled by the Greeks secrete treaty with the Muslims. There was also the incident with Baldwin attacking Edessa another Christian city, therefore turning against his Christian brothers and denying the Christians of the East help.
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Ultimately the main message preached in these letters is one of reconciliation and a desire to fight for God and the Church: 'You should know, moreover, that if any men among you go there not because they desire earthly profit but only for the salvation of their souls and the liberation of the Church, we ....relieve them of all penance imposed on their sins.'(Riley-Smith, Crusades, pp. 38-9) This was particularly relevant at the time as it was considered that in reality, only priests and monks would go to heaven, therefore the Crusade was seen as an easy way to get into heaven.
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"The scientific revolution (1500-1700) gave rise to the spirit of inquiry, reasoning, and the critical (scientific) method of arriving at the truth" (Kramnick). "The Scientific Revolution was an attempt to organize knowledge about nature as well as to understand the physical world through logic and the use of reason. The Scientific Revolution was characterized by numerous achievements. It was marked by a shift from a geocentric (Earth-centered) view to a heliocentric (Sun-centered) view" (Hall). This is a clear contrast to Christianity, which placed humans at the center of the universe. Another important achievement of the Scientific Revolution was the fact that a mathematical understanding of the movement of heavenly bodies was achieved.
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Calvin's coherent belief system plays an important role in not only his success in Geneva and this is mainly due to his 'Institutes of Christian Religion' which turns out to be a huge best seller. The significance of his 'Institutes' is that it had been the first time any one had ever systemically explained the Protestant doctrine - whilst Luther had published several books, Calvin's was more developed and provided a commentary on the Bible, including scriptural evidence to back up his views, something which Luther lacked.
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How far would agree that the strength of the British government was the main reason for the failure of Daniel O(TM)Connell(TM)s campaign to repeal the Act Of Union?
Unlike in the Catholic Emancipation campaign, all groups were united against Repeal, except O'Connell's supporters. In this sense, Repeal was doomed to fail from the beginning. Nevertheless, O'Connell embarked on the campaign of Repeal with the same formula as had worked a few years previously, but this time ended with less positive results. Most of the Irish liberal Protestants who had accepted emancipation withdrew their support at any attempt to disrupt the Union. The Presbyterians of the North became the staunchest defenders of the Union.
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Political issues far outweigh religious issues in explaining the outbreak of revolt in the Netherlands by 1572?
In addition Philip was resented as he was continuously busy with the rule of his other home country Spain, war with France and the problems with the takeover of Turkey in the Mediterranean. Therefore it can be seen that Philip's totalitarian and somewhat distant approach to the Netherlands did him no favours yet pushed both the grandees and the peasants further away whilst hampering their positions. An immediate source of conflict therefore lay with the grandees as their position was overlooked, most evidently through the creation of the Consulta which consisted of three loyal servants to Philip, including Cardinal Granvelle,
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Which of these judgements best Reflects the State of Imperial Russia in 1914? By 1914 all the Signs were there that Imperial Russia was heading towards a Major Confrontation between intransient Tsarism and the Forces of Change or
Once calm was restored to Russia he treated the Duma as an advisory body as he saw a compromise of his autocratic powers equal to a defeat of the monarchy. By going back on his promise Nicholas made it abundantly clear that little would change and that no elected body would impose its influence on him. Whilst in a Western society this situation would more often than not result in rebellion, in Russia where the tsar was always above criticism, his reluctance to yield to advice only made him seem a stronger autocrat to his people.
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The size of Russia was the most important factor limiting the success of Peter the great(TM)s economic reforms. Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.
Peter the great, after proving himself as an outstanding figure in Europe set about his economic reforms. Although he did have some success with these reforms there were many things that limited him. I agree to some extent that the biggest limitation to success was the size of Russia. Many of his economic reforms fell down due to this reason. Agriculture was one of Peter's reforms which were really limited due to the size of Russia. Harsh climates in the Moscow made development difficult, corn harvests only gave yield of three or four metres although agriculture did increase due to Peter's motivation in his reign.
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Firstly von Schleicher is appointed Chancellor in December 1932. Then in January 1933 von Papen and Hitler have private talks in which von Papen says that he will make Hitler Chancellor and himself a member of the cabinet. Hitler agrees, but Hindenburg will not give Chancellorship to Hitler. Eventually, after von Schleicher resigns, Hitler is made Chancellor after von Papen persuades Hindenburg. Von Papen thought that as long as there were a limited number of Nazis in the cabinet then Hitler could be controlled. Von Papen was wrong. Also there was the weakness of the Weimar government, which played its part in the eventual Chancellorship title that Hitler obtained.
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The source emphasises Hitler's cunning tactics which he used to outplay the people who thought they had control over him and this outlines how smart and tactical Hitler was, Hindenburg and the elites thought they had tamed Hitler however this was a disguise and a front for Hitler to create a dictatorship. Furthermore there were various key events which helped Hitler consolidate his power, perhaps the most important and vital event was the Reichstag fire. This event was important as it increased Hitler's power, it allowed him to intimidate and threaten people with the help of the S.S and the S.A.
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(Larsen, pg. 82) This prophecy was not fulfilled until Themistocles and Aristides (the just) entered office in 493 BC to fill the political void left by battle of Marathon hero, Miltiades. Athens' political system was in shambles and in need of a new political leader. They were knee deep in conflict with the island, Aegina, which threatened to obliterate Athenian commerce, and they were in conflict with the emerging eastern power, Persia. In addition to this, Themistocles and Aristides were in a dispute over military expansion. Aristides fought for an augmentation in the ground attack while Themistocles advocated a policy of naval expansion.
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There were many factors that contributed to the failure of the Second Crusade, such as what had happened when they reached Edessa, Muslim unity, tactics at Damascus and Christian incompetence. Edessa was the primary and most important part of why the crusade failed (as it was the main motivation of the crusade). This state was founded by Baldwin of Bologne, from the First Crusade, but it had fallen to the Muslims in 1144. Therefore this was made the main objective, and since the First Crusade was so successful, the crusaders were overly confident and optimistic about the Second Crusade.
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The Woodvilles would have been the next after Edward to get the crown. Richard didn't want this to happen because the Woodvilles were an unpopular family. Richard believed because people disliked the Woodvilles he should claim the crown before they do for the good of England's future. Richard was described by many as power hungry. This meant Richard would stop at nothing to get to the top. My own knowledge of his past can prove this because he had no sense of sanctuary when Lancastrians claimed sanctuary at Tweaksberry he dragged slaughtered them anyway.
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But this also included Germans who were mentally ill and social outcasts. They would be put in concentration camps and removed from any high office and discriminated against. Volksgemeinschaft also involved a sense of hyper-Nationalism and r****m in that Hitler wanted people to believe that they should be proud to be part of the Volksgemeinschaft. He carried out various methods in order to succeed with the creation of a genuine Volksgemeinschaft. Therefore, in the following essay I will be arguing that Hitler didn't succeed in creating a Volksgemeinschaft. Hitler's overall aim was to create Volksgemeinschaft.
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Martin Luther was of course incredibly important to the movement: because he wrote the 95 theses. This was an unprecedented action that no-one had considered doing before. To accentuate the significance of this, Luther was exceptionally brave in doing this, and sticking by his ideas when most people would have quailed under pressure and threats: even when he received the Exsurge Domine in November 1518, a papal bull of excommunication he continued in his cause, even standing up for views under threat of execution in a debate with John Eck and again in front of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
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The Parisians took their weapons from Les Invalides, an old soldier's retirement home, where they seized 28,000 muskets and 20 cannons. When arriving at the Bastille the crowd was denied entry by the governor (De Launay), he was forced to surrender and then murdered and decapitated by the mob. This was the first of the journees to occur at decisive moments during the course of the revolution, and as such is clearly a significant event in 1789 and in the revolution. The events that took place on the 14th of July had many effects on various aspects of French life.
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Also, the fact that Luther chose to nail up his thesis on All Saints Day also played a significant role in the spread of Lutheran ideas - with a sacred event such as this, all kinds of people, including educated and scholarly, would have been moving around Wittenberg; therefore, the thesis would have been seen and understood easily, and from then on, his ideas could have been passed on by word of mouth, due to the frequent passer-by, in and out of the town.
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To live up to his words Philip used The Council of Trent as a tool to which he could implement his plans. The Tridentine Decrees (Religious Acts), were issued to attempt to reform the state of the clergy; priests were forced to attend weekly sermons, transubstantiation were confirmed as key to Catholic doctrine and seminaries were set up to train new priests and re-train old ones. Philip attempted to improve the standards of discipline and education in the clergy, the teaching role of the Church expanded and as a result religious art flourished.
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Furthermore he only made direct attempts to prevent Protestantism in Germany on five occasions- the Diet of Worms 1521, the Diet of Augsburg 1530, the Colloquy of Regensburg 1541, and perhaps his most successful attempt in the two Schmalkaldic Wars from 1546-55. However this absence could be better accounted for by an inability to focus on Germany due to other issues rather than a lack of incentive to stop heresy. Charles' huge inheritance including the Burgundian lands, Aragon and Castile, Austrian lands as well as his title of Holy Roman Emperor resulted in many preoccupations.
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How effective were National Government of 1931-1939 in dealing with the problem of unemployment? 20 Marks
Because of the gold standard there was nothing to stop a flight of gold. At first the government tried to stop the flight by introducing punitive interest rates. But in late 1931 the government was finally forced to abandon the gold standard, and immediately the exchange rate of the pound fell by 25%, from $4.86 to $3.40. This eased the pressure on exporters, and laid the ground for a gradual economic recovery. Also, in 1932 Chamberlain introduced tariffs on imports at a rate of 10% on all imports except those from the countries of the British Empire.
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How far was the conservative government responsible for the outbreak of the General Strike in 1926? (40 Marks)
This made the British pound too strong for effective exporting to take place from Britain, and also (because of the economic processes involved in maintaining a strong currency) raised interest rates, hurting all businesses. Further complicated the condition was when Baldwin refused the Samuel Recommendations and Granting subsides. The Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin decided to intervene, declaring that they would provide a nine-month subsidy to maintain the miners' wages and that a Royal Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Herbert Samuel would look into the problems of the mining industry. The Samuel Commission published its report in March 1926.
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Lloyd George bears the main responsibility for the flawed Treaty of Versailles. To what extent would you agree with this comment?
on one hand Britain was facing problems as a result of the First World War such as economic problems, lack of allies, imperial weakness and potential enemies. Moreover Lloyd George was not only the one who set the terms but was also dominated by Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson. It's always a topic of discussion that the terms of Clemenceau were much harsher than Lloyd George. We shall discuss this in much detail in the following essay. Lloyd George had three main aims: A 'just' peace that would be tough enough to please the electors who wanted to 'make Germany pay', but would leave Germany strong enough to trade, land for Britain's empire and to safeguard Britain's naval supremacy.
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Sparta on the other hand was located in the middle of the Peloponnesus (Perry, p51) and the people trained in the arts of soldiering on land (Perry, p47). The military was equally as fundamental to the Athenians who taught that courage and loyalty was what they needed to rely on, rather than secret weapons, in war (Thucydides, p66). The Spartans took security of the state seriously, going as far as, conducting periodical deportations in order to prevent people from finding or observing secrets of a militaristic kind that belonged to the state (Thucydides, p66). For the Athenians, planning ahead was crucial.
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To what extent can the growing involvement of the United States in Vietnam, in the years 1950-1968, be seen as an ideological crusade against communism?
At the Geneva conference, Eisenhower showed he was taking an independent, hard line to fight communism by refusing to cooperate with the communists. Vietnam was the USSR's and China's puppet as Southeast Asia was in danger. Truman lost China which furthered their commitment in Vietnam and deepened their ideology that they didn't want to lose Vietnam to communism. Truman therefore helped the French to be a barrier against communism in Europe. Additionally, in his 'Truman Doctrine' speech he said that the US would help any country that resisted communism.
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