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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods
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For example, The Papal Bull of Excommunication was never carried out in Saxony and neither were the terms of the Edict of The Worms. Also, Frederick persuaded Charles V to carry out the Diet of Worms in German, instead of Rome, so that Luther could defend himself safely. Another way Frederick defended Luther was in 1521 when he had him ?kidnapped? on his way back from Worms and taken to the Wartburg for his safety. The significance of Frederick the Wise?s protection is that he ultimately prevented Luther from being killed or persecuted by those who disagreed with his motives.
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Do you agree with the view that in the years before the First World War, there was willing and widespread Indian cooperation to British rule?
From source 1 you can see that they argue with the statement that there was willing and widespread Indian cooperation to British rule. Source 1 was written by the historian Stanley Wolpert about 20 years after the end of British rule in India. It says that ?anti-partition passions grew bolder?, which shows that there wasn?t much cooperation with the British as the partition was set up by the British viceroy, Lord Cruzon. Also the sale of Indian made goods rose, ?swadeshi sales boomed in the wake of the boycott? showing that Indians didn?t want anything to do with Britain not even their goods.
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The Saxons had a fyrd but the key weakness of it was that that it didn?t entirely exist and it had to be summoned when a Viking threat arrived- it wasn?t properly organised before. This gave the Viking?s a major advantage over the West Saxons in battle and shows the idea of being reactive rather than proactive was a notion that needed to be addressed by the West Saxons. This non- existent defence system came into play at Chippenham in 878 when the Viking?s took advantage of the West Saxons liturgical calendar, attacking them on the Twelfth Night and taking them completely by surprise.
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How far do you agree that by 1763 the ties between Britain and the American colonies were already strained?
This ensured that foreign trade was unlikely to become dominant, as the ships had to be owned in England. Also it meant certain commodities could only be exported directly from the colonies to England. Again this shows how Britain tried to have a monopoly on certain products from the colonies. Acts like the Woollen Act (1699) stated that woollen yarn could not be exported outside the colony it was produced in. Britain did not want the colonies to become too powerful and rich. The acts did benefit the colonies. American products had a protected market in Britain and the colonies imported British manufactured goods.
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Why is establishing the date of the Theran eruption so important for the chronology and archaeology of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age?
the radiocarbon results are derived from "hard science," and thus should take precedence over all the protests of the archaeologists, it remains a matter of practical observation that virtually no one has been able to apply this principle to the history of the ancient Near East. To illustrate this, it is only necessary to examine the dates given to Egypt's New Kingdom (Dynasties 18 through 20) in any current reference work, either book-bound or in one of the online encyclopaedias.
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How accurate is it to say that the controversy over indulgences were merely the trigger than the fundamental cause of Reformation?
The situation of the German states was not helped with the numerous taxes the papacy forced on the Germans including the Tithe, especially as the Church was not for filling its duty. Martin Luther ideas were also not the first to attack the church, but new humanist ideas were beginning to spread across the educated in society, including the writings of Erasmus. The significance Luther's Indulgence controversy played a large part in the cause of the Reformation as it provided a platform and a clear understandable argument against the church that played to a wide array of peoples feelings.
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One way slavery was significant in the growth of the British Empire was the control exerted in West Africa. Slaves were brought to the coast and transported through the middle passage, this was the most difficult part of the journey as they could easily be attacked and many slaves died on this long journey as it took up to 6-8 weeks to get to the West Indies. Therefore it was seen as an area to protect from European powers, like the Dutch or Portuguese. Forts were built up and down the coast of Africa ?Forts were both a display of strength and an unmistakable white frailty? this increased the growth of the Empire as the forts were used to spy on traders which gave the British a foothold in the continent.
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Do you agree with the view that it was largely as a result of the work of Florence Nightingale that medical care for British soldiers improved during the Crimean war? (Use sources 1,2 and 3 and your own knowledge.)
?Her kindly presence is an influence for good comfort even amid the struggle of illness and death.? This source presents a tradition view of Florence, the melodramatic tone emphasise her caring nature and good will, from my own knowledge I am aware that Florence Nightingale gained a lot of good publicity from The Times, and they even managed to raise money for scrubbing brushes and cleaning equipment. Thus, the melodramatic style of writing could perhaps have been used to fulfil the above.
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the Byzantine fleet proved vital, religious zeal ? and the attraction of Jerusalem provided drive, determination and ideological cohesion which proved vital at Antioch in particular. Candidates may discuss some of the following in relation to ?strong leadership?: the role of Urban II in galvanising support; the role of the papal legate, Adhemar of Le Puy ; the roles of Raymond of Toulouse, Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon, and to a lesser extent Hugh Vermandois, Robert of Normandy, Stephen of Blois, Baldwin and Tancred.
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Divine intercession could be bought if you had lived a sinful life. They also made money by making rich people donate their land to build a cathedral, monastery or abbey on it if they had done something sinful. There was s social division between the clergy and the laity, this division was tense and extensive. The clergy had spiritual power of saying mass. When a priest says mass, bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of the Christ. This power turned out to be socially and economically important as people would pay for masses for people in purgatory, people's wills would have money for masses in them.
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Britain also provided India with modern technology, such as the railway network, electricity and, later, air transport. In short, Britain brought India into the modern world of the 19th / 20th Centuries, raising it from the Mediaeval trough of feudal domination it had been languishing in beforehand, and creating a new, humane and advanced system of running a nation. These good things cannot be ignored. Moving on to the negative effects of British rule over India. Before the Raj, India had the second largest economy in the world and consequently that economy did not grow whilst under ruling.
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But another effect of living in this area of Russia was the great influence from the west. This made Peter a modern thinking man for the age, growing up in Preobrazhenskoy it allowed for him to see that rank wasn?t that important to running a country and started to believe that those who were good at their jobs were the ones who should be helping him not only win battles but also help him govern the country. It could be argued that if Peter had not grown up in this area of Russia he may not have wanted to push as many reforms as he did on such a wide area of issues.
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Additionally, he was insistent and exploited his successes. Frederick the Great Frederick the Great is seen as one of the greatest military leaders in the European history as he was able to transform Prussia despite it being a small, struggling state. I personally think that although he was a significant general his position was made somewhat easier as his father had already doubled the army and they were well trained. Nonetheless, he used this well trained army successfully to his advantage and managed to obtain much more territory and power to enhance the country.
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The Okhrana (the Secret police at the time), and Army laid at the front of this despotic rule. The public always had to be wary of what they said as they never knew whether the Okhrana would be listening whilst the army took a violent approach to any form of rebellion. These forms protection arose due to Alexander II assassination in 1881. Alexander II was a reformer. Socially, he freed the serfs, drew up plans for investment in railways and he politically instituted new provincial council e.g.
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This is isolated Russia due to no access to western countries through sea or land. Transportation was a major problem. The rivers Volga and don flow contrariwise, away from St Petersburg and Moscow, which as population grew, desperately needed the grain from the fertile south and later iron for industry. For many months each year, rivers and ports were blocked by ice and subsequently made impassable by spring floods. The rudimentary roads were likewise subject to the weather. The first signs of iron production in the North West and at Tula, south of Moscow.
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Maos Leadership was the crucial factor in the Communists winning the 1945 Civil War. How far do you agree with this statement?
There were many reasons for this, and probably chief among these reasons was that they neglected the needs of the majority of the population; the peasants. The peasants made up around 80% of the population of China, and they were mainly farmers with little of anything ? land, possessions, or money. They had been ruled over by cruel warlords for some time, and had waited for changes to come which would improve their lives and, more importantly for them, their income.
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Joan was like any other peasant girl in the 15th century. She could not read or write, but she worked hard on her father's farm and acquired her faith and prayers from her mother. In the village she was remembered as a good and simple girl. She had three brothers and a sister who died at a young age. As a peasant, she always remained close to home and didn't even consider leaving the village until she was thirteen and had begun hearing voices.
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This developed an extremely capable war force in which one Spartan warrior had the ability ?to take on three Greeks? alone, showing that one of the most predominant Spartan strengths was the well trained nature of all Spartiates. However in having a training system so far advanced that the skills and warfare knowledge of the average soldier mirrored those of an official, contradictions arose as lower ranked captain?s disobeyed orders based on their own interpretations of the field. This is shown through the battle of Mantinea as the Spartan King commanded a change in battle formation ?but he was not
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