- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
- Marked by Teachers essays 4
this land provided her with valuable coal and iron resources. Prussia became quite rich due to trade with other countries and many of the smaller states realised that they could benefit from trade with each other. Trade between states was very difficult so to encourage trade, Prussia established a customs union in 1818. Member states would not have to pay taxes as goods were transported from one state to another. By 1836, this union was called the Zollverien and had 25 member states, equating to around 26 million people. As trade increased, ideas spread and the states realised that they benefited from closer contact with each other.
- Word count: 2468
To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in French political instability 1689 - 1789?3 star(s)
This caused the complete opposite of what Louis wanted to happen, rather than separating the German princes it caused them to unify, posing quite a formidable resistance to France. During this conflict in Germany, William III of Orange, who was Louis XIV's main rival in terms of power, invaded England with the intent of bringing the English into the war on the side of the coalition. Having successfully invaded English in 1689 and had them declare war on the French, William finally had the coalition he wanted.
- Word count: 2768
The understanding of ancient medical knowledge, as of other branches of science, was of course conditioned by social and cultural factors that changed over time.i For example, what began in Greece even before the Renaissance was where some of the oldest examples of Greek scientific writing and observations to base medical treatment were found; in medical treatises (written studies of a subject). Treatises like the ones about the "epidemics" of that time show that some authors were exceptionally aware medical observers who acquired notable ability to describe the signs and course of disease in individual patients.ii After taking in most of this new knowledge, Greek approaches to medicine began to include diverse and contradictory approaches.
- Word count: 2929
In this essay, I shall use primary sources to measure the short term significance of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803-1806), focussing on documents to and from Thomas Jefferson.
They will then be more willing to sell their land to the United States 'which the rapid increase of our numbers will call for'. In addition, the United States can 'undersell' individual traders, to become the main trading partner of the American Indians 'in the interests of commerce'. He says that tribes living in the north 'furnish great supplies of furs and peltry to the trade of another nation,' referring to the British (the old enemy) in Canada. However, whoever finds 'a continued navigation from [the Missouri's] source' would have the trading advantage.
- Word count: 2478
Ancient Discoveries: Troy. This report covers a brief historic background on the discovery of the Hisarlik site of Troy; Heinrich Schliemann (refer to figure 1.), its discoverer and his methodologies whilst excavating the site. It focuses primarily on his
Using geographic clues from his copy of the Iliad, Schliemann discovered another hill near the village of Hisarlik that seemed to fit Homer's description. Schliemann's decision to excavate at Hisarlik was confirmed after incurring a preceded theory by British archaeologist, Frank Calvert that Hisarlik was indeed the ancient city of Troy. Calvert had been working on the mound for over 20 years and had acquired half of the hill but lacked in finances to pursue further investigations on the site, so he decided to confide his archaeological findings with Schliemann, gaining collaboration with the rich benefactor in uncovering Troy.
- Word count: 2020
the economic crisis through forceful introduction of the Tenth Penny, implementing the "Blood Council" and his bad decision making which forced William of Orange to become Head of the revolt. I will also show that John Motley's interpretation has an inaccurate, dramatic approach - although there was great fear at the thought of a Spanish Inquisition, it was never effective in the Netherlands so therefore could not be the main cause. I disagree that religion was the main cause of the Dutch revolt.
- Word count: 2073
The sheer difficulty of the task facing the new Provisional Government was made worse upon its formation; when the Provisional Government was experiencing its first hours in power. The Provisional Government was made up entirely of middle and upper class members, most of whom were freemasons, meaning they were happy to help each other out but not so happy to look out for anybody outside their new government. This meant that they were not very democratic; a fault which immediately struck a chord in the hearts and minds of those Russians who had so apposed the Romanov Dynasty's autocratic rule
- Word count: 2868
The Capitoline Triad originally consisted of the three main gods of Rome; Jupiter, Mars and Quirino. However, Juno and Minerva eventually replaced Mars and Quirino. Every January 1st the citizens of Pompeii gathered at the northern end of the Forum to celebrate the Roman New Year. There they gathered at the temple of Jupiter (identified by the surviving inscriptions), a building set on a 10ft high foundationii, to watch the sacrifice of a bull to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, patron deity of Rome.
- Word count: 2571
The banquet movement began in July 1847 and was organised by the central committee of the seine. It was created in response to the lack of reform created by Louis Philippe, and his first minister Guizot. Many people within the chamber were dissatisfied, and also many who weren't, as they wished for the franchise to be extended to represent more of the bourgeoisie. It drew inspiration directly from the Anti-corn law league campaigning at the same time in Britain. There were about seventy banquets held overall; it began as a moderate movement run by the gauche dynastique, to display populous opposition to Guizot and Louis Philippe's government, and to champion the cause of electoral reform.
- Word count: 2063
was marked by economic decline although most historians believe that it was not as severe as previously thought. In addition, the economic decline in Western Europe started long before the deposition of the last Western Roman Emperor and even the beginning of the Migration Period. The Roman Empire fell into severe economic, political, social and spiritual crisis in the 3rd century which resulted in far-reaching changes that gradually led to emergence of medieval Europe. During the Crisis of the 3rd Century and the period that followed, the Roman Empire saw collapse of the traditional trade networks, decline of cities as economic and cultural centers, emergence of half-free tenant peasants (coloni)
- Word count: 2365
Lots of children were evacuated from cities to the countryside due to the heavy bombing. This created problems for both the evacuees and hosts. Children were split from their parents, often upsetting the child. Bernard Kops in Source 6 said it felt like being auctioned off and there was a worry of being separated from his sister. Lots of children would have been nervous and billeted into separate homes. This would often lead to children bed-wetting. Evacuees from upper class homes often found their lifestyle changed for the worse. Eleanor Stoddart in Source 8 said some people were put into dirty homes, with perhaps only a single bed with no running water to wash.
- Word count: 2299
- Word count: 2000
upon thousands of Arabs and Jewish people would be killed as two groups of people compete for a land to which both seemingly have an 'equal claim'. Furthermore, in the time up to, and during the Holocaust, the Jewish people would be scattered around Europe, many unable to leave and those who tried found themselves blocked at the border, unable to find sanctuary in Palestine. The Jewish people, would, by the end of the war, have suffered losses in great magnitude - over 6 million Jewish people due to the 'Final Solution' - mass-killings by the Nazis.
- Word count: 2695
The relative ease with which Boudica destroyed both Veralanium and Londinium, killing an estimated seventy to eighty thousand Romans, served to send create overconfidence through their forces.1 This consequently hampered the Celts judgment and decision making. Another contributing factor was the success which the Celts had at the beginning of the rebellion. After sacking Camuldunum (Colchester) Boudica's forces met the ninth Roman legion, led by Quintus Petillius Ceralis, who were attempting to relieve the siege of the city. The Celts destroyed what Tacitus estimated to be eighty percent of the legion and routing the remainder.2 Whilst such a victory may
- Word count: 2512
It is possible to doubt the genuineness of its statement, as the Legislative Council needed to show that they were loyal to the British Empire in the hope of being granted more reforms. However, this statement is in accordance with the view of Chaudhuri, who says in his autobiography that educated Indians admitted that British rule "had also emancipated their minds, so that they could turn to social and religious reform and cultural creation".4 Gandhi also tolerated British rule, as he thought that the British values of justice and equality were valuable for India.5 Unfortunately for the British, all this respect for British rule collapsed because of the actions taken by General Dyer at Jallianwala Bagh.
- Word count: 2176
Gandhi was instrumental in India achieving its independence. Gandhi was able to procure Indias independence by unifying the people of India, by reforming the Indian National Congress and by staging peaceful protests against the British authority.
Within India Gandhi felt boxed in. For this reason Gandhi traveled to South Africa in 1893. In South Africa Gandhi worked as a legal advisor for an Indian firm. Gandhi was appalled by the level of discrimination that he saw. While in South Africa he was once thrown out of a first class train for the sole reason that he was Indian even though he had a valid ticket. This situation sums up the treatment of Indians in South Africa. For the next twenty years in South Africa Gandhi fought for the civil rights of Indian immigrants.
- Word count: 2189
Labour failed to seriously alter British class structure (Robert Pearce) and indeed passed some measures which proved to worsen social divides, such as the grammar school system, according to Morrison. The Beveridge report made many recommendations for changes to British society, separating the problems into 'five giants,' Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness, although this distinction is misleading as his proposals were highly integrated as shown by the proposed National Insurance contributions which would pay for the many social changes Beveridge was suggesting.
- Word count: 2132
Ibrahim tried to convey to the Malays that their "good character" was being "damaged" by the invasion of their material life through foreign language, goods and labour. He called for Malay unity and the advancement of Malay interests, and gave speeches about Malay social degradation around the country. The sharp, analytical style of his speeches "served as a model for debate and discussion in the growing public sphere", (Milner, 1994) showing that the message of Ibrahim's speeches was received by the many throughout the country who heard him speak.
- Word count: 2771
Through centuries Stonehenge has been excavated, x-rayed, measured, and surveyed. Despite that many aspects of Stonehenge remain subject to debate. What is more, even though the stones that we can see today represent Stonehenge in ruin it still remains Britain's greatest national icon symbolizing mystery, power and endurance. No one is quite sure how old it is, who built it or what its function was. There are plenty of theories explaining the monument's function and history but very little is known for certain.
- Word count: 2076
Consider David Starkey(TM)s and Francis Pryor(TM)s respective versions of the nature and extent of Anglo " Saxon Settlement between AD 400 and 600. Which of them of you find the most persuasive and why?
The second theory is invasion - again by Germanic tribes. In this interpretation there would be masses of Angles and Saxons who arrived by boat and started a violent conquest of the new lands. Initially they might have been invited in by the Britons as mercenaries, and these then sent back for more men before uprising against their masters, or they could have arrived independent of the local's knowledge. The third theory is that Britain was conquered by a small Germanic Elite.
- Word count: 2944
How valid is the view that short term causes were more important than long term causes in the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933?
This allowed Hitler and his n**i party to grow because they favoured the small parties, as it meant that they got deputies even if they only got a small share of the vote which meant they would then have more power as they could form part of the coalition government. The Weimar government was also made unpopular because of they were held culpable for the surrendering the war and signing of the treaty of Versailles, its subsequent harsh terms made governing even more difficult.
- Word count: 2139
Historians believe there are "striking similarities"4 between Hitler's Nazism and Leninist/Stalinist Russia, as Stalin spoke of "Socialism in one country"5 and the Nazis were the National Socialist party of Germany. While the similarities in the policies of the Nazis and the Bolsheviks is clear, it is also clear that the differences between Lenin's and Stalin's methods of running Russia was the fact that many see Lenin's use of terror as justified due to the civil war threatening the very existence of the regime6, whilst Stalin's was for his own self-gain.
- Word count: 2115
Why Were Some Forms Of Nationalism More Successful Than Others In Achieving Concessions From The British Government In The Period 1800-1900?
Key figures in the revolutionary movement included Robert Emmet in 1803, John Mitchel and Smith O'Brien, leaders of the Young Ireland movement. Abortive attempts in 1798 and 1803 failed to have much immediate effect, but these left a longer-term mark on Irish politics which led in part to the Young Ireland uprising of 1848 and the Fenian uprising of 1867. These two separate if sometimes overlapping ideologies provide the key to understanding the history of Irish Nationalism in the nineteenth century and furthermore in the last century also.
- Word count: 2360
Cities were the main driving force of the Reformation in Germany(TM) " explain whether you agree or disagree (15 marks)
as the 95 thesis were first originally written in Latin). Although not all were able to understand the minutiae of 'the Priesthood of all Believers', many were able to grasp the concept of the anti-clerical message that accompanied it. The cities also inhabited the universities, where the word of God could be translated, therefore many scholars where living in the cities and could help spread the Lutheran ideas. The cities also contained the printing presses where the pamphlets, Lutheran rhymes and the Bible in the vernacular could be printed.
- Word count: 2394
The discovery of rare minerals has been a major natural resource and economic boon to South Africa owing to their power on the global market, which remains significant through to present day South Africa. It was for this reason that the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand (Transvaal) in 1886 and subsequent mining activities had such a vast impact upon the economy and society of South Africa.1 In fact, the seams of gold were so extensive and rich that the discovery eventually led to the construction of Johannesburg, the largest urban municipality in Southern Africa and the centre of the gold mining trade.
- Word count: 2818