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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods
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The traditional view among the majority of historians for a long period of time regarding medieval women was that they were very much dependent on men and rather helpless without either the male dominated political, clerical and economic aspects of society at these times. Their role was seen as being purely domestic with the exception of those who became a nun, as women were expected to stay at home tending to all the required duties of the household. One source which gives an idea of how medieval women were trapped in this helpless, domestic ideal is a famous poem written by Lord Tennyson called, 'The Lady of Shalott'.
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Alexander II is sometimes called the Tsar Liberator. Is this an accurate interpretation of his reign?
Many educated Russians read the work of Scottish economist "Adam Smith" who argued that free wage labour was more productive than forced serf labour1. This was significant as it reflected the Russian economy at the time whereby there was a low productivity of serf labour. Nobles were said to find it extremely difficult to extract from their serfs the resources needed to support their Westernised lifestyles. Hence it was argued that Serfdom was an inefficient way of using labour and as a result Russia's agriculture would stagnate and so would the entire Russian economy.
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Each area had different needs, and the Princes were in a much better position to decide on what was required for their principality than a single figure potentially based on the other side of the Empire. The idea that any problems would be eradicated by this system is certainly not the case however, and it will become clear that this was a flawed system with the potential for a great amount of unrest within the Empire. During the late Middle Ages, England, France and Spain were the countries that dominated Western Europe, and Spain was certainly one example of how Europe was in some ways quite stable.
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To what extent was the German government responsible for the outbreak of the First World War in 1914?
Germany's aims were to keep peace and that could be done by not unsettling the present superpowers (Britain, France, Russia and Austria-Hungary-A-H) Consequently, and some could say inevitably, this created the first sense of "paranoia" (a key feature which we will come to see) that other countries will feel threatened by the sudden ambitions of Germany. From this point forward, the other countries were encountering a first-time experience on a newly formed country wanting to progress into their "rankings". Germany, whose top priorities were to develop, Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism and Capitalism may not have realized it but they were sure to unsettle the balance of power/friction if they continued and succeeded with their aims.
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The inherent political instability, which had plagued feudal Europe, was no less different in the Holy Land. This can be seen in the dealings of Kingship of the crusader states. It was decided that Guy was to remain king until his death whereby Conrad de Montfereet would then inherit the throne. They were both to share royal revenues and Conrad was to hole a large northern county consisting of Tyre and if he should recover it, Sidon. However Conrad, the French crusaders and the local barons, none of whom had ever really accepted the 1191 compromise, constantly challenged this. It had thus resulted in direct negotiations with Saladin and a failed attempt to seize Acre for Conrad.
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The government attempted to modernise agriculture in order to support industry and move away from its backward, agrarian based economy. In 1856, the agrarian based economy in Russia was reliant on the serfs and the peasants, which made up 90% of the population. The rural community was made up of landlords, who owned the land on which the serfs worked. The strips of land on which the serfs worked were given out amongst the commune by the Mir. This primitive farming technique, coupled with the poor quality of the land, meant that farming was inefficient and backward.
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Firstly, we have to examine the circumstances in which Louis XIV said "I've been too fond of war". Was this possibly just an ageing Roman Catholic confessing his sins in life before god, or did he truly feel that he may have failed France in some ways over his pursuit of personal glory. It could have been Louis regretting that he hadn't achieved all of his foreign goals or due to a regret of leaving the French financial position in a severe deficit.
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The events in India in 1856/7 were caused by the issue of the new cartridges to the Sepoys in the Bengal army How far do you agree with this interpretation of the Indian mutiny?
Most historians see the issue of the cartridges as the trigger for the mutiny beginning and not as a substantial cause of the mutiny. Judd, Brendon and Marshall share similar views in this sense however see different as to what was the main cause of the uprising of the Sepoys and the cause of the Indian mutiny, whilst Bandyopadhyay sees the issue of the cartridges as a strong factor as to why the uprising occurred in 1857. The Bengal army was largely made up of Sepoys who were predominantly Muslim and Hindu, and when a rumour was leaked that the
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Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing sustained economic progress in the years 1881-1982. Assess the validity of this statement.
On the other hand, some historians have pointed out that agriculture in Russia during the late Tsarist years were not so destructive. One argument maintains that actually, Russia?s agriculture grew and developed quite substantially pre- revolution. For example; from 1890 to 1913, cereal production per capita increased by 35%. Although this evidence is hard to ignore, it is also difficult to turn a blind eye to the contrasting evidence which suggests that agriculture suffered under the late Tsarist regime and consequently, affected the economy as a whole.
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King Tutankhamen was made a pharaoh after his father king Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and ascended the throne in 1333BC at the age of nine years old. The argument over history that a leader could have absolute power is during the 18th Dynasty when Akhenaten and Tutankhamen ruled which can be proven by ?despotism? which was the unlimited power and authority of Pharaoh?s and is further promoted by the Egyptian peoples viewing the ruling pharaoh as a god, the sun of the sun-god Ra, and not merely a representative but an incarnation of the falcon-headed god to be the successor of Osiris.
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