"The Venetian Empire was Essentially a Commercial Enterprise. Like all Good Businesses it Survived and Prospered by Changing With the Times." In What Ways and How Successfully did Venice Change With the Times During the Three Centuries After 1200?
J.C. Douglas-Hughes "The Venetian Empire was Essentially a Commercial Enterprise. Like all Good Businesses it Survived and Prospered by Changing With the Times." In What Ways and How Successfully did Venice Change With the Times During the Three Centuries After 1200? Before 1400 Venice was ruled by trade. Her naval superiority allowed her the opportunity not only to protect her trade routes but also to disrupt her enemies'. It was due to this supremacy that Venice was commissioned to provide a fleet for transport for the 4th crusade. Venetian naval dominance arose after the battle of Ascolon, from this the Venetians were able to gain an overwhelming amount of riches. The sea supremacy enabled the Venetians to plunder merchant ships. Venice had also been granted certain trading privileges by the Greek or Byzantine Empire who had given these in return for the Venetian support against the Normans. However when a new Emperor took over in Byzantine, he failed to renew the Venetian trading privileges. This caused the Venetian fleet to carry out raids on Greek islands, which eventually persuaded the new Emperor to renew the privileges. These privileges were from then consistently renewed by the successors of the Venetian Empire due to the Doge Ziani's skill in negotiating. The third crusade was manipulated by the Venetians to their advantage. Although they did not
Using appropriate evidence, describe daily life in either Dublin or Waterford in the Viking Age.
Using appropriate evidence, describe daily life in either Dublin or Waterford in the Viking Age. The aim of this essay is to critically describe daily life in Viking Ireland in either Dublin or Waterford. For the purpose of this essay I will concentrate on Dublin, as there is a substantial amount of archaeological evidence that was found and excavated by archaeologists. It has been widely recognised from extensive archaeology excavations that Fishamble Street and Winetavern Street as well as High Street were pivotal centres in which the Vikings took residence and went about their daily life (Hall 1990, 25). This essay will look at many different aspects of Viking daily life in Dublin, including their occupational activity, the types of houses they lived in, their burials and the type of objects they traded on a regular basis. This essay will firstly deal with the houses and types of dwellings that the Vikings of Dublin were accustomed to. The major excavations that took place between the years 1961 and 1981 in the areas of Wood Quay and Christchurch (Rosedahl 1982, 229-230). The excavations reveal to us that the normal everyday Viking dweller lived in houses that were mostly composed of wattle and daub (Rosedahl 1982, 230). Other characteristics of the type of house a Dublin Viking would live in was that the shape would always be rectangular accompanied by rounded corners
Do you agree with the view that the Second Boer war resulted in imperialism being discredited?
Do you agree with the view that the Second Boer war resulted in imperialism being discredited? Towards the end of the Second Boer war in 1899, people had blamed the failure of the Boer War on imperialism; the policy of extending the rule of authority of an empire to foreign countries. Due to the mistreatment of other countries; which include the human atrocities in South Africa, where the burning of farms took place alongside the use of concentration camps, it became hard to build up a case for Imperialism. However, in Britain there was fierce support for both side, which was shown in the 1900 Khaki Election, where it was proved that a majority of people agreed with the Conservative view on continuing with the war. The linguistic devices used in both sources 4 and 5 create a negative opinions of imperialism, in source 4, the words which are used include ‘dragged’ and ‘discredited’. The words used are linked directly with the title of the question, which suggest this source is trying to place a negative slant on Imperialism. Source 5 also used negative language when mentioning the aristocrats ‘manipulating’ public opinion. You can infer that this reference is about the aristocrats leaning on the national newspapers to over emphasise positive stories about the war; a particular example of this is Robert Baden Powell, who was known to be the ‘media’s
Do Historians agree that the WSPU was an elitist, anti-male organisation?
Do Historians agree that the WSPU was an elitist, anti-male organisation? Many historians have argued for and against the factor that the WSPU was an elitist (anti-male) organisation. The term elitist organisation highlights a group governed by highly intellectual individuals, or people belonging to the upper classes of society (like the aristocracy). The political organisation highlighted here (WSPU) which stands for the 'Women's Social and Political Union' had started off targeting working class members, later moving their attention to the middle class. Women were also only allowed to join the WSPU, men being restricted to joining this particular organisation. So the primary arguments supporting the case the WSPU was being an elitist organisation was made by Jill Norris and Jill Liddington, this is due to the actually contact they had with the working class women of the organisation. It could be highlighted that working class women would have been ignored by the WSPU leaders, which would have stopped other working class women from supporting them and would have widened the gap for middle class women to become the supporters. This in turn would lead the WSPU in becoming an elitist organisation. The organisation soon after would only gain upper class women members. This shows that the organisation would have been elitist because the women they would have wanted in the
How far was the Russo-Japanese war responsible for the 1905 revolution
How far was the Russo-Japanese war responsible for the 1905 revolution? 905 saw the Tsar at war with his own nation for the first time considerably in many years. Displays of protests, strike and demonstrations were a common visual throughout cities in Russia such as Moscow and St Petersburg and a significant event of which was Bloody Sunday. Arguably, the Russo-Japanese war was extremely responsible for the 1905 revolution to an extent as it was the main factor contributing towards it, however there are other contributing factors causing an atmosphere that lay the foundation towards this "failed" revolution. The personal weakness of Nicholas II caused an atmosphere of rebel contributing to the 1905 revolution as his personality did not suite the role of the Tsar; this is as the role of the tsar relied on a strong personality which he did not possess. Nicholas was unprepared to become Tsar - he was deficient in essential qualities to uphold the position of absolute power to uphold absolute power. He lacked all sense of purpose; he did not resemble the characteristics of the Tsar to carry out the will of the tasks of monarchy and the business of running a state. Nicholas' adviser was more confident than he was; furthermore he was easily influenced by the 10 member of his ministerial council showing that he shied away from responsibility. All of this contributed to a rebellion
How far do you agree that by 1763 the ties between Britain and the American colonies were already strained?
Sinéad Longden How far do you agree that by 1763 the ties between Britain and the American colonies were already strained? By 1763 the American colonies had developed so rapidly, in terms of population, culture somewhat and economically, that it is not hard to wonder whether the relationship with Britain was perhaps strained. If the American colonies were becoming quite independent then they might wonder whether Britain should have control over them. Colonial government meant that, especially in royal colonies, the crown had power over them. Also, the American colonies were, in theory, controlled by the laws set by British parliament. Furthermore the Seven Years’ War caused many problems that were likely to lead to key reasons for the War of Independence. Britain knew from the outset that American could perhaps provide materials and key trade opportunities for Britain. In order to successfully harbour the potential Britain created the Trade and Navigation Acts (1651-73). These meant that all cargoes to or from the colonies were to be transported in ships built and owned in England or the colonies. This ensured that foreign trade was unlikely to become dominant, as the ships had to be owned in England. Also it meant certain commodities could only be exported directly from the colonies to England. Again this shows how Britain tried to have a monopoly on certain products
What Problems Did The Kingdom Of Jerusalem Face In The Period 1174-1187?
Ben Jacques ________________ What Problems Did The Kingdom Of Jerusalem Face In The Period 1174-1187 From 1174 the Kingdom of Jerusalem waned until its eventual fall to Saladin. It faced a number of problems from Amalric’s death that saw that its demise was inescapable. It had a series of weak and distracted rulers that damaged political stability, it faced economic and military pressures, however most importantly it faced the threat of a united Muslim front under Saladin. A series of weak and short ruling kings weakened Jerusalem and wore away at political stability. Historians have argued that those who succeeded Amalric from his death in 1174 were weak and unworthy of Jerusalem’s throne. Runciman says Amalric was “The last king of Jerusalem worthy of his throne”. From his death onwards there was a constant fight for power between the ill, young and protectorates. It stemmed from Amalric’s repudiation of his wife in 1163 essentially creating two factions after his death, those from his original wife’s side and those from his second’s. During Baldwin IV’s reign there was constant rivalry between his sister and half-sister over succession of the throne. This infighting and rivalry meant that issues in court were not decided on judgement but on one-upmanship, this understandably led to a poor administration. For example in 1184 even during the siege of Kerak
To what extent could the Crusades be described as failure within the years 1095-1195?
"To what extent could the crusades be described as failures within the years 1095-1195?" Crusades – religious military expeditions carried out by European Christians with a goal of “saving” the Holy Land from the Muslim control. The Crusades were one of the most important events in the Medieval. The Crusaders not only included the kings, feudal aristocracy and knights but also other parts of the society such as clergy, servants and ordinary people. People taking the Crusade vow had different reasons to do so: some wanted to get richer, others were looking for adventures and some were following their religious feelings. Thanks to legends, the Crusades were surrounded by halo of romance and grandeur, chivalry and courage. However the stories about brave and gallant knights are exaggerated to a great extent. Moreover, they “forget” about the fact that although knights had shown the courage and heroism, heard calls from Pope and believed in God’s help they still failed to “save” the Holy Land. By the end of 1195 the Palestine was under Muslim control. The reasons why this happened to be looked upon in this coursework. The Reasons for the Crusades The Crusades were launched by Popes, who were seen as a legitimate authority who could declare a “Holy War” and promise God’s forgiveness. Pope and other masterminds of the movement promised the celestial and
How accurate is it to say that the weakness of the Protestant forces was the main reason for Habsburg military successes in Germany in 1618-1630?
How accurate is it to say that the weakness of the Protestant forces was the main reason for Habsburg military successes in Germany in 1618-1630? The Protestants suffered under political weaknesses mainly as a result of their lack of political allies. Frederick, the Calvinist leader of Bohemia was disregarded in the Empire as he took the crown against the advice of the Protestant Union. This meant he did not have widespread support from other Protestants within the Empire and was therefore isolated. For example, the Bohemians were supported only by Brunswick and Baden within the Empire. Moreover, they also lacked international support, for example, the Netherlands did not support Frederick as their troops were already occupied in a war with the Spanish Habsburgs. This shows Frederick not only lacked support in the Empire, but on a larger scale as well. This weakened the Protestants as they were no competition to the Habsburgs in terms of support and allies. The Danish suffered the same fate as they only had limited support in their phase of the war from 1625. However, the English and French both funded Christian with subsidies allowing him to increase his army of mercenaries. On the other hand, they did not provide any physical strength in the war effort. Moreover, Christian had no support in the Empire as people weren’t willing to take on the Habsburgs after what happened
Why was Luther able to challenge the Catholic Church so successfully in the years 1517-1525?
0.11.12 Why was Luther able to challenge the Catholic Church so successfully in the years 1517-1525? Various reasons contributed to Martin Luther’s success in challenging the Catholic Church from the years 1517-25. The five key reasons behind Luther’s success were his protection by Frederick the Wise, the fact his ideas were appealing and popular, his passion and determination, the failures of the Church itself and finally, the timing of his challenge. Some of these factors also affected each other and these links provide the strength which allowed Luther’s revolt to be so successful. This is because one of these factors alone would not have been sufficient in preventing Luther gaining the same fate as those who attempted a reformation before him. Conversely, some reasons can also be considered as having a larger and more widespread effect than others, meaning they were more significant in contributing to the final outcome. Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony and founder of the University of Wittenberg was the most powerful early defender of Luther. He played a large role in helping Luther keep his message spreading and on several occasions used his authority to benefit Luther’s revolt. For example, The Papal Bull of Excommunication was never carried out in Saxony and neither were the terms of the Edict of The Worms. Also, Frederick persuaded Charles V to carry