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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. Strategy in Cortes' conquest of Mexico

    Hassig argues these "flower wars" were in fact a type of imperial war with important strategic objectives. The Aztecs often engaged in "flower wars" with their strongest opponents, while reserving conquering wars for vulnerable targets. The Aztecs often directed their conquering wars against those weaker foes which happened to border the Aztecs' strongest "flower war" opponents. Once the stronger enemy was completely surronded and deprived of potential allies, as well as room to retreat, the "flower war" escalated to a full fledge war of conquest, with the Aztecs chipping away at the enemy's periphery until the noose completely tightened.

    • Word count: 3341
  2. Los Inicios de Kaminaljuy

    Durante la fase Miraflores (300 a.C.-300 d.C.) se levantaron la mayor parte de los mont�culos. La cer�mica de esta �poca adopt� formas exuberantes con una bella decoraci�n sobre estuco. Comenzaron a erigirse estelas conmemorativas con representaciones de reyes y dioses. En el siglo IV d.C. llegaron las influencias de la cultura teotihuacana y la ciudad alcanz� su m�xima expansi�n. Son de esta �poca las pir�mides escalonadas, revestidas de estuco y coronadas por un templo. Kaminaljuy� desempe�� un importante papel en la expansi�n del mundo cl�sico mexicano por las tierras mayas de El Pet�n.

    • Word count: 1879
  3. Explain the factors which attracted European imperialism either to Africa or to Asia in the later nineteenth century.

    European imperialists were lured to Africa by the potential economic benefits there. A sudden demand for foreign markets for manufactures and for investments existed, due to the mass productivity that resulted from Industrialization. Imperialist Europe opted to use the public resources of their country to find profitable employment for their capital which otherwise would be superfluous. Africa offered Britain, as well as Germany, France an open market that would garner it a trade surplus. As such, the African market would consume more from the metropole than it would sell to it.

    • Word count: 1309
  4. Cavour's role in strengthening Piedmont

    The Statuto was the ruling of which Piedmont was now under, article 5 under this ruling stated that all justice was dictated from the king. This therefore led to the abolishment of separate law courts for priest and other religious figures. There where other abolishment's made in regard to the church, the right of criminals to see protection in churches, the number of days in which people where not allowed to work was restricted as was the amount of property monasteries where able to buy.

    • Word count: 1225
  5. Why did the United States fail to win the Vietnam War?

    Thus, the escalation policy convinced the communists that the US lacked the will to win and could be worn down. Hence they took advantage of this unwillingness of the US in order to succeed in the war. In comparison to this the influence of the anti-war movement also resulted in the failure of the US. This was because many citizens in the US were against the war and wanted the US to withdraw from Vietnam. The Presidents and senators had to consider the views of the voters, but attitudes for the war were always mixed.

    • Word count: 962
  6. To what extent was the US' decision to withdraw from Vietnam in 1973 the result of military defeat?

    Moreover other tactics for instance air bombing also failed for the same reason. The US military failed to understand that to tackle a guerrilla war they needed the support of the local population instead they relied too heavily on military technology. The military aspects led to its own failure as the methods used were not appropriate tactics to pursue because it only escalated the war further and the US governments failed to give up. An alternative feature which also led to the decision to withdraw is the significance of Tet offensive.

    • Word count: 1307
  7. To what extent can the growing involvement of the US in Vietnam in the years 1950 -1968, be seen as an ideological crusade against communism?

    In 1949 the Soviet Union tested its first atomic b**b but the US thought that this would not occur until the late 1950's therefore the US lost their lead in nuclear technology. Moreover the Americans believed that communism threatened international free-trade and the democratic ideals which were important to American well-being and security. Furthermore the Soviet Union was seen as the base for future communist expansion especially to Indochina and Vietnam. It became clear that if one country falls to communism then the rest would follow.

    • Word count: 1086
  8. how effectively did francis i deal with calvanism

    Francis introduced censorship into the printing of the Calvinist books. This forced john Calvin into exile from France. John Calvin was exiled to Geneva. This didn't stop the books from being published, as now john Calvin was out of France. And he could operate there, and as Geneva is outside of France, Francis couldn't do a thing about it. So the censorship and forceful exile didn't improve things much either. Calvinism is a form of Protestantism. Protestants believe in justification by faith alone, and do not agree with the catholic papal authority.

    • Word count: 975
  9. Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?

    In my opinion the main reason to why william won was pinned on luck, Harold eagarly expecting this to happen and he and his army waited on the beach strong and prepared for the norman invaison. William was planning to arrive on the beach and if this had happened Harold would have slaughtered him. Fortunately for William, the sea was too choppy to sail across the channel and so William's army were waiting in Normandy for the weather to improve before crossing.

    • Word count: 1306
  10. To what extent was england subordinate to Williams concerns in Normandy?

    It was caused by Williams's refusal to sanction the marriage between Emma and Ralph de Guader in 1075. This was due to William had been living in Normandy betwenn 1074 1075.The revolt In William's absence, Ralph, his new brother-in-law Roger and Waltheof began the revolt, but it was plagued by disaster.It is belived that Rodgers motives were that of him not receiving automatic privillages and the high political power his father (William Fitz Osbern) once had being deprived of all his lands and of his Earldom. Suport came from the King of Denemark, However william ensured that the revoult was crushed before the Danes arrived.

    • Word count: 1370
  11. To what extent had the Russian economy been successfully modernised by 1914?

    The government attempted to modernise agriculture in order to support industry and move away from its backward, agrarian based economy. In 1856, the agrarian based economy in Russia was reliant on the serfs and the peasants, which made up 90% of the population. The rural community was made up of landlords, who owned the land on which the serfs worked. The strips of land on which the serfs worked were given out amongst the commune by the Mir. This primitive farming technique, coupled with the poor quality of the land, meant that farming was inefficient and backward.

    • Word count: 2040
  12. Louis XIV's fondness of war resulted his downfall

    Firstly, we have to examine the circumstances in which Louis XIV said "I've been too fond of war". Was this possibly just an ageing Roman Catholic confessing his sins in life before god, or did he truly feel that he may have failed France in some ways over his pursuit of personal glory. It could have been Louis regretting that he hadn't achieved all of his foreign goals or due to a regret of leaving the French financial position in a severe deficit.

    • Word count: 2775
  13. Could The Division Of Germany Been Avoided In 1949?

    At this time, it was unlikely that any agreement on Germany was possible. While America supported integrated Western Europe, the USSR wanted to avoid partitioning Germany and it would have a great effect on their economy. The mistrust greatened between the two countries, as the USSR had attempted to disrupt the Marshall Plan via making France and Italy mistrust American. America had little trust for the USSR at this point. In the end, the London Conference broke up in the 15th December 1947 and there was still bitterness between the East and West.

    • Word count: 1749
  14. Why Did The Wartime Alliance Break Down?

    The East and West had two completely different ideologies, which would present itself as a issue. The West supported Capitalism, based on free elections and the freedom of speech. In contrast, the East supported Communism. This comprised of a dictatorship, led by Joseph Stalin, lack of freedom of speech and essentially the government controlling all aspects of people's lives. There were mistrusts which ranged back to the 1918, which contribute to the breakdown of the Alliance. The West had felt that their values, freedom and Capitalism were being threatened by Russia. Stalin believed that is Communism was to be successful, and then a worldwide revolution would have to take place, meaning the collapse of Capitalism.

    • Word count: 1659
  15. How Important Were The Policies Of Gorbachev In Bringing An End To The Cold War In Europe?

    Gerontocracy was used to describe the Soviet leadership between 190-1985. At this time, the Soviet Union was in need of reforms, but all the leaders were in too poor of condition to do anything effective. For example, Brezhnev died in 1982; therefore there was no change in Soviet foreign policy. Andropov was 69 when he come to power. He attempted to start domestic reform, but died soon after. Chernenko, his successor was unable to have an impact on policy and died after less than a year in office. Soviet workers had no chance of bettering themselves, it led them to be cynical and lose faith in the government.

    • Word count: 1673
  16. How far should the policy of collectivisation of agriculture in the Soviet Union (1929-1940) be regarded as a disaster?

    The Soviet Union had modernised with new methods: tractors and fertilisers. What with the modernisation and 17 million peasants leaving the countryside (between 1928 and 1937) to go and work in towns, it is no surprise that by 1937, 97 million tonnes of grain was produced, plus money for exported grain. Collectivisation was partly, a political success. By getting rid of Kulaks, it purged the land of capitalism and Soviet propaganda showed collective farms as a triumph for the state and created a myth of the happy worker.

    • Word count: 870
  17. William's Victory

    Secondly, William had a marvellous reputation as a good leader and warrior. William of Poitiers illustrates this by describing his leadership skills '...in such a position that he could give his orders by hand or by voice...'. This describes William's power over his men, and could also indicate that his army followed his orders religiously. With leadership skills like this, William could control his army effectively to use tactics in the best possible way in order to gain victory. His army believed in him, which is proved as when rumour came that William had been killed he took off his helmet and said '...Look at me well.

    • Word count: 1473
  18. Tribal Studies Sioux Indians

    Their movement was mainly influenced by the migration of the buffalo. It was also the buffalo one of their most important sources of food and material; they used their skins to build clothes, tepees, and moccasins. Their horns were also useful for the construction of tools, bowls and cups. Horses were not introduced to America until some Spaniards brought horses with them in search of gold. Before the Sioux had horses, they had to walk everywhere they went and had to carry everything with them.

    • Word count: 1567
  19. Using appropriate evidence, describe daily life in either Dublin or Waterford in the Viking Age.

    The major excavations that took place between the years 1961 and 1981 in the areas of Wood Quay and Christchurch (Rosedahl 1982, 229-230). The excavations reveal to us that the normal everyday Viking dweller lived in houses that were mostly composed of wattle and daub (Rosedahl 1982, 230). Other characteristics of the type of house a Dublin Viking would live in was that the shape would always be rectangular accompanied by rounded corners and end walls (Clarke and Simms 1985, 126).

    • Word count: 1108
  20. To what extent is Arrian's praise of Alexander's leadership justified?

    In comparison to the other four surviving sources on Alexander, it is easy to understand why Arrian's is considered the most accurate. Plutarch, like Arrian portrays Alexander in a favourable light, however, some of it verges on the romantic, thus dismissing it as bias. Justin's work is widely regarded as unreliable and Curtius is also considered somewhat suspect. Although Diodorus contains valuable material, his dates are confused and his geography is inaccurate, thus respectively making Arrian's the most effective account of Arrian's expeditions The origins of Alexander's excellent skills as a leader can be traced right back to his impressive upbringing.

    • Word count: 3849
  21. What has been the overall effect of the westernisation of the Eu Ura Wau Wau Tribe?

    They use arrows to hunt and their huts look like this: The Brazilian government were given away so much forest that the tribe were losing the forest quickly and their habitat. People who were given the land were mostly farmers and they deforested the forest. The tribe and its leader decided to attack and kidnapped and killed some children in their home. The tribe shoot arrows at the family and killed to sons and kidnapped the youngest. The tribe were angry because they believed that it was their forest and they wanted to keep the forest indicted and this was not possible while the Brazilian government continued to hand out forest to families each day.

    • Word count: 683
  22. "The Venetian Empire was Essentially a Commercial Enterprise. Like all Good Businesses it Survived and Prospered by Changing With the Times." In What Ways and How Successfully did Venice Change With the Times During the Three Centuries After 1200?

    These privileges were from then consistently renewed by the successors of the Venetian Empire due to the Doge Ziani's skill in negotiating. The third crusade was manipulated by the Venetians to their advantage. Although they did not take part in any direct fighting against the Muslims, it was they, due to their naval superiority, who provided transport for the crusaders. For this it is almost certain that the Venetian Doge negotiated a generous payment for his services. Also the main achievement made by the crusaders, the recapture of Acre, was beneficial to Venice The plunder that the Venetian pirates claimed

    • Word count: 1164
  23. How did Florentine 15th Century palaces reflect the concerns of their patrons?

    Because of the close proximity of these buildings, there was a sense of a region of the city being under the influence of the Medici, due to the number of impressive buildings within the area that were built by the Medici. With the Medici family in particular, a key concern was that they wanted to establish physical lineage as they were a relatively new family and were not nobility, meaning that they didn’t have an established lineage to build upon. The Medici family was incredibly concerned with a conscious establishment of legacy, and the location of the palace created this.

    • Word count: 1389
  24. "The most important factor in Martin Luther's survival was Frederick the Wise" discuss

    Born in 1463, he became elector of saxony in 1486 when he succeeded his father. In 1502, Frederick founded the University of Wittenberg. This is where Luther began his teaching and the development of his ideas. This was the first crucial part of lathers survival. The university gave Luther the intellectual freedom and academic resources to develop his thinking about the catholic church. It allowed Luther to write his 95 theses as well as gain academic allies within Wittenberg. Despite not playing an active role, Frederick the wise was still a reliable protector of the home and intellectual centre of the reformation movement.

    • Word count: 888
  25. To what extent did Colbert succeed in reforming the French economy and finances?

    It took a whole ten days to travel from Paris to Lyon by coach- heavy goods needed far more efficient transport. Colbert was powerless to stop the outdated collection of péages for goods being transported through France, originally intended when local landowners had to maintain the infrastructure themselves. It was financial and political traditions of the ancien regime like this that made sensible taxation so difficult. He was very successful in his reform of taxation, specifically direct taxation. He reduced the direct taxation, a highly popular move among the Third Estate.

    • Word count: 921

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