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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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    Another type of gasoline was called Naphtha. Naphtha was used to scare enemy troops away. Soldiers would pour the gasoline onto their clothing, ignite themselves, and run into an enemy camp on horseback. The camp would think the devil was after them and the entire camp would get scared and run away. The bad thing was this trick did not always work (http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/war/weapons2/html). Gunpowder was also a very effective explosive device. At first gunpowder was mainly used to start quick fires to enemy camps and to send signals to other soldiers.

    • Word count: 918
  2. Gandhi was instrumental in India achieving its independence. Gandhi was able to procure Indias independence by unifying the people of India, by reforming the Indian National Congress and by staging peaceful protests against the British authority.

    Within India Gandhi felt boxed in. For this reason Gandhi traveled to South Africa in 1893. In South Africa Gandhi worked as a legal advisor for an Indian firm. Gandhi was appalled by the level of discrimination that he saw. While in South Africa he was once thrown out of a first class train for the sole reason that he was Indian even though he had a valid ticket. This situation sums up the treatment of Indians in South Africa. For the next twenty years in South Africa Gandhi fought for the civil rights of Indian immigrants.

    • Word count: 2189
  3. Explain why the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Split in 1903

    One of the main reasons for the Social Democrats splitting was over the way in which issues would be discussed. Lenin wanted the party to be run by a Central Committee. This committee would make all the decisions and they would exercise all the authority of the party. This is known as democratic centralism. Many critics of Lenin said that it would lead to a dictatorship being established and that could be dangerous to the country as well as to the party. However, his opponents, led by Plekhanov, believed that there should be open and democratic discussions inside the party.

    • Word count: 703
  4. To What Extent was the 1905 Revolution due to the Consequences of the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War?

    The Russo-Japanese War was officially fought because of the conflicting ambitions of Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. The Russian Government was expecting a short and victorious war that would make the people change their minds, away from revolution, and look at the Tsarist Regime in respect once again. However, it did not work. The Russians suffered two major defeats. One on the ground when the Japanese won the Battle of Mukden, and one on the sea, when the Baltic Fleet of the Navy sailed halfway around the world only to be almost completely destroyed in the Battle of Tsushima.

    • Word count: 1190
  5. Lenins Economic Policies lacked consistency in the period 1918-1924. How far would you agree with this statement?

    However, this is not what the Bolsheviks wanted because the land was then still under private ownership and therefore this meant it was not part of their socialist vision. Factory committees were given the right to control production and finance in the factories and also to supervise the management of these workplaces. Some committees took this to mean that they had been given direct control of the factories, but it did not mean this at all. This was way beyond what the Bolshevik leaders wanted but they were powerless to do anything other than this because of the strength of the workers pressure for reform.

    • Word count: 1409
  6. To what extent did a strong succession mean a strong reign in the years 1066-1189?

    Perhaps the king that encountered the most rebellions was William the conqueror. This was inevitable as he was the first monarch to seize an unchartered England. After his victory at Hastings, the conqueror travelled straight to Winchester and seized the treasury, perhaps recognising the substantial importance of such an institution if he were to emphasise his absolute rule over his newly acquired jurisdiction. Within two weeks of his invasion, William was crowned publically by a high ranking bishop, therefore reinforcing the idea of iconography. It was without doubt that those loyal to Harold would attempt to oppose the new Norman kings role, either perhaps to test the strength of their new king or to purge him from power completely.

    • Word count: 1739
  7. How important was the takeover of Kingship during the Medieval time-period?

    William firstly set the precedent for what became icons for other kings in time of initial succession. He sailed from Anjou, travelled straight to Winchester and laid claim to the treasury, within two weeks he was crowned publicly, thereafter is where William saw opposition to his kingship. It took nearly six years for William to consolidate his conquest; he changed the administrative system completely with the introduction of the feudal system, successfully employed by the French to run the country smoothly and effectively.

    • Word count: 1243
  8. Examine the impact of the Great Famine on Irelands society, economy and politics

    But as Wesley Johnston points out: "It was undoubtedly the greatest period of death in Irish history, but its long term effects were to involve even more people than this." (Johnston, 2001) One and a half million Irish people emigrated mostly to the United States, Canada, Britain, New Zealand and Australia in what were commonly called 'coffin ships'. Many did not survive the treacherous journey. Most survivors however took with them a deep hatred of Britain and blamed Britain for not helping Ireland through the Famine and for making them move away from everything they knew and loved.

    • Word count: 1956
  9. How far did the establishment of the Congress of the People Campaign and the Freedom Charter mark a turning point in the progress of Black African Nationalism in South Africa?

    However with the Congress of the People campaign the different anti-apartheid forces united and membership to the new joint nationalist movement became open to all people irrespective of s*x, race or gender. The Campaign unified most of the liberation forces and transformed them into a non-racial Anti-Apartheid force called the Congress Alliance. With this new found unity, the new movement was better equipped in future battles against apartheid because it introduced ideological uniformity within the liberation movement in turn minimizing disputes within members of the alliance.

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    There were problems with ordinary priests, who the German people would have the most contact with; problems such as illiteracy meant that communities did not have their spiritual needs fully met, which for a deeply religious society would have been a real problem. However, for the most part, these issues were not perceived as major problems with the Church, the population wasn't used to any different standard of organised religion. It wasn't because of these abuses that the resentment was felt, but they did set a precedent for reform and were one of the reasons, if a minor one, for the deep resentment felt towards by the Church by 1517.

    • Word count: 814
  11. How far did Society change under Stalin

    out of villages, churches raided, bells melted down, imposed taxes on churches � By end of 1930 80% of country's village churches closed � 1/40 functioning by end of 1930's � No new churches in new towns and cities Education � Traditional teaching, homework, textbooks and testing came under attack � Shulgin, headed educational research institute, said children could be educated to be useful.

    • Word count: 557
  12. Women in Maos China

    Loyalty of ministers to the Emperor 2. Respect of children for their parents 3. Obedience of wives to their husbands What did this mean? � As daughters women owed obedience to their fathers.

    • Word count: 253
  13. The Death of Mao

    * However when Mao became aware of the plan they decided to flee to southern China instead. Lin Biao * Zhou Enlai found this out and tried to stop them. The plane was forced to take off before being fully fuelled and so plans were made to go to the USSR instead. * However the plane crashed in outer Mongolia killing all 8 people on board. After Lin Biao * Who would succeed Mao? * Zhou Enlai was too old. * Jiang Qing was Mao's wife, but hated. After Lin Biao * Zhou Enlai - Wanted to increase contact with the west and organised a visit from President Nixon in 1972.

    • Word count: 776
  14. Islam's Effect on the West

    Before the core discussion of Islam's significance in the development of the Western Civilization, a brief description of Islam and its rise to power is suitable. As it is known, the founder of Islam is Muhammad, a brilliant salesman and mediator, who according to Muslims became the last prophet of God. Day by day, Muhammad's prophecies attracted more and more followers and the numbers grew fast. Soon Muhammad had enough followers to raise an army and conquer Mecca, the city from which he was banished because of his teachings.

    • Word count: 1017
  15. To What Extent Had Mussolini Established A Personal Dictatorship by 1928?

    Mussolini's blueprint of how to do this was: * Fascists would be brought into Rome from all over Italy * Important public buildings would be taken over including buildings outside the city in the north * Mussolini would demand the current government stand down and that he would be allowed to enter government with his Fascist Party * Armed Fascists would be stationed outside Rome, if the government did not accept Mussolini's demands, they would enter and take over by force * Mussolini banked on the fact that Victor Emmanuel's cousin, the Duke of Aosta was a Fascist supporter *

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  16. Religious Concerns solely explain the strong opposition to the Third Home Rule Bill. To what extent would you agree?

    This suggests to me that religious concerns explain the strong opposition to HR, as it is evident that the Unionists, who obviously wanted to remain loyal to the crown, opposed the Bill; it seems to me that the Unionists are more worried about a defeat against Protestantism and Unionism, rather than a defeat to the Union itself. Although the Home Rule Bill does get passed in Westminster in September 1914, this obviously is during the period of the First World War, so the British and Irish agree to put it on the backburner until the end of the war.

    • Word count: 781
  17. How Successful Were Economic Policies 1933-1939?

    In the 1933 Election campaign, Adolf Hitler promised that if he gained power he would abolish unemployment. He was lucky in that the German economy was just beginning to recover when he came into office. However, the policies that Hitler introduced did help to reduce the number of people unemployed in Germany. Hjalmar Schacht became the President of the Reichsbank on the 17th March 1933. Schacht came up with a plan that became known as 'The New Plan.' The aim of this plan was to reduce unemployment in Germany and to stimulate the economy so it could have time to recover and also to build up confidence once more in the economy.

    • Word count: 1237
  18. Immigration During the 16th Centruy

    People were persecuted during the reformation of the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was brutal to those who wanted to worship outside the Catholic religion; the people were tortured or executed. One way they tortured people was by suspending them in cages outside the church walls. They tortured people because the head of the church and the royalty thought themselves authorized and responsible by God to keep people in line within their land. Since they believed they had the responsibility of keeping their people on task, they took in matters such as marriage, education, and communication into their own hands.

    • Word count: 806
  19. To what extent was Philip II personally responsible for the problems he faced in the Netherlands in the 1560s?

    areas in order to reinforce Catholicism was unpopular with man different groups of people which Philip could have done with support from. It angered many of the merchant elites as it threatened the commercial success of the Netherlands as the apparent introduction of the Inquisition could scare off foreign traders who were seen as heretics, these foreign traders were crucial to the commercial success of Netherlands. Furthermore it compounded how strict Catholicism was, which led to many merchant elites becoming attracted to the concept of double predestination which was portrayed in Calvinism, in the long term this led to the success of the Iconoclast fury of 1566.

    • Word count: 1042
  20. How successful was Philip II's foreign policy?

    This left many worries over who would be Henry's successor and eventually by 1580 Philip was King of Portugal. Philip's was successful in Portugal due to his two pronged policy of diplomacy and bribery along with the dispatching of Granville, one of his closest advisors to cultivate merchants of Lisbon who already were closely identified with Philip due to loans from the crown. This detailed and precise approach successfully ensured the withdrawal of Catrina - Philip's main rival in Portugal.

    • Word count: 1005
  21. How did han (domain) rivalry contribute to the downfall of the Tokugawa Shogunate?

    In the Bakumatsu period there was han rivalry which centred around Kyoto, Edo and among tomaza clans. This played a decisive role in Tokugawa collapse. The rivalry set in motion two phenomena: the gradual weakening of Bakufu power and the strengthening of Satsuma and Choshu. Indeed they were almost interrelated. The Shogun's fall of power is to be examined first. Han rivalry did much to weaken the power of the Shogunate. In June 1862, at the urging of Satsuma and Choshu, the Court decided to send a special envoy to Edo to demand that Hitotsubashi and Matsudaira, Satsuma's Shimazu's allies, be admitted to high office and, more importantly as later events would prove, the envoy was to insist that the shogun visit Kyoto to discuss expulsion of foreigners from Japan.

    • Word count: 1013
  22. How successfully did the Labour governments of 1945-51 solve the social problems of the time?

    Labour failed to seriously alter British class structure (Robert Pearce) and indeed passed some measures which proved to worsen social divides, such as the grammar school system, according to Morrison. The Beveridge report made many recommendations for changes to British society, separating the problems into 'five giants,' Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness, although this distinction is misleading as his proposals were highly integrated as shown by the proposed National Insurance contributions which would pay for the many social changes Beveridge was suggesting.

    • Word count: 2132
  23. How effective was the leadership provided by prominent individual nationalists in Malaya?

    Ibrahim tried to convey to the Malays that their "good character" was being "damaged" by the invasion of their material life through foreign language, goods and labour. He called for Malay unity and the advancement of Malay interests, and gave speeches about Malay social degradation around the country. The sharp, analytical style of his speeches "served as a model for debate and discussion in the growing public sphere", (Milner, 1994) showing that the message of Ibrahim's speeches was received by the many throughout the country who heard him speak.

    • Word count: 2771

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