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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. Luther and the Humanists

    Erasmus changes from the view that Luther's efforts are admirable with just the need to "refrain from antagonism for a little while", to making statements such as that he "approved of what seemed good in his work", with this the emphasis on the past suggesting that his support for Luther is beginning to diminish. These changing feelings can most probably be accounted for by the effect which the 1520 Pamphlets had on Erasmus and other Humanists. The Humanists as a whole, and Erasmus in particular, were strongly against violence, and the use of very violent language in On the Babylonish Captivity of the Church was likely to have stirred up unrest within the Humanists.

    • Word count: 870
  2. 'Collectivisation was a political success but an economic failure and a human disaster'

    In 1927 Collectivisation was introduced as a voluntary scheme, however at the beginning of the 1929 it became clear people were not going to volunteer to leave their homes and livelihood, and so Collectivisation became forced. The army was sent to enforce Stalin's decision, and as much as the government wanted to paint a joyful picture of peasants welcoming Collectivisation, it was very different. There was huge resistance from peasants, not only kulaks but those wanting to protect them, their friends and local villagers.

    • Word count: 1714
  3. To What Extent Was The Late Middle Ages A Time Of Unrest In Europe

    Each area had different needs, and the Princes were in a much better position to decide on what was required for their principality than a single figure potentially based on the other side of the Empire. The idea that any problems would be eradicated by this system is certainly not the case however, and it will become clear that this was a flawed system with the potential for a great amount of unrest within the Empire. During the late Middle Ages, England, France and Spain were the countries that dominated Western Europe, and Spain was certainly one example of how Europe was in some ways quite stable.

    • Word count: 2684
  4. Revision Table - Tudor Rebellions

    * Ignored in some courts but accepted by Charles VIII King of France. * As part of peace treaty, C had to ask PW to leave the French court. * Was taken in by Margaret. She gave him support in his attempts to invade England. * Second attempt got him there, but on meeting Henry's army fled. * Captured and surrendered. * Execution of PW buts end to longest, weakest threats to a Tudor monarch. * Ends the final repercussions of the Wars of the Roses.

    • Word count: 3110
  5. Was the nobility the most important factor in destabilising France in the years leading to the outbreak of civil war in France in 1562?

    Francis' feeble rule created a power vacuum between the rival noble families. During the reign of Henry, court influence was shared between the Montmorency and Guise families, and when Francis was crowned, the Guises quickly secured their position of influence, having an immediate advantage because the King was married to their niece, Mary Stuart. Francis was easily persuaded by the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine to place the family in full control of military, church and foreign affairs. The two Bourbon princes of the blood, Antoine of Navarre and Louis of Conde equally sought to re-establish their court influence following the recent coronation and there was initial discontent from

    • Word count: 1215
  6. A direct comparison of the role of central power and control during the late Tsarist and early Soviet period of Russia History

    Stalin in particular used his position to put the majority of power and control in his hands. The ideology of the Tsarist era was 'based on three principles of orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality,'2 the Communist model was once of 'democratic centralism,'3 where the power of the party was the key rather than the social structure or class. Both the Tsarist and the Soviet eras saw a large degree of centralised power, however the ideological basis of this power as a method of control is hardly comparable.

    • Word count: 3243
  7. Why did bolsheviks win civil war

    Holding these key areas gave the Bolsheviks a number of key advantages over their opposition. The central area contained the main armament factories in Russia, and this made it possible for the Bolsheviks to keep their troops supplied and equipped with weapons, ammunition and supplies. With the area being so heavily populated, the Bolsheviks were able to concript large numbers of people, in the area, to fight; this meant that the Red Army often could outnumber the White Armies as the White-held areas were not as heavily populated.

    • Word count: 1361
  8. The Liberty Bell

    John Dock Pass and John Stow, both of Philadelphia, built the new bell. Both of their names are inscribed on the ball. Copper was added to the composition of the alloy used to cast the bell, and the public was unsatisfied by the tone of the new bell. The two men recast the bell again, restoring the correct amount of metal, and this bell third bell was hung in the steeple of the State House in June of 1753. The bell rang to announce the opening of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and after the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775.

    • Word count: 1045
  9. The Reality of Medieval Woman

    This statement highlights common male attitudes towards their women and also suggests that a man should beware of his senses so as not to succumb to a woman in case of loss of authority. Women may have been looked upon as need to be kept under control which would therefore keep a medieval woman's day quite busy. For example a wife would have been required to carry out homely tasks such as preparing bread , curing meat, cooking, brewing, up keeping of the house and making clothes, which in medieval times would have been quite time consuming.

    • Word count: 1784
  10. Puritans influenced the people of the 21st century

    The children of the present time in the United States are still punished physical by their parents.

    • Word count: 1013
  11. South African Heritage - Where we come from?

    Many of the recognized black and indigenous heritage sites before 1989 were rock art sites. Source C shows how the mindset since 1989 has changed. Black and Indigenous heritage sites are now what make up the main chunk of South African heritage and they are reminders of how far we have come as a nation and how far we can go in the future. Activity 2 1) Study Sources D, E and F, and the information in the text. Explain how each of these sources show some of the controversies which surround who controls heritage. Refer to all three sources.

    • Word count: 3405
  12. Archaeology: Methods of Preservation (Tutankhamen & Iceman)

    Methods of Preservation The circumstances of �tzi's death, although unfortunate for himself were extremely good for modern scientists and archaeologists. The body of �tzi is a superb example of 'wet mummy' or 'ice mummy' preservation. �tzi's body had been trapped under glacial ice for over 5000 years; this and the relatively low amount of sunlight received at that underground level helped to deter bacteria from growing in and decaying the body. In 2001 however Thomas Bereuter (of Vienna University of Technology)

    • Word count: 1739
  13. The Significance of the Irish Convention, 1917

    The only real significance of the Convention were the results on two parties in particular; the Irish Parliamentary Party was destroyed, the Southern Unionists split and their relationship with the Ulster Unionists was ruined. The political agenda of the Ulster Unionist party had changed very little since 1912, although they were now resigned to the idea of partition, essentially abandoning the Unionists in the south of Ireland. Their main goal was to ensure an Ulster exclusion from Home Rule, and for this they were prepared to make sacrifices.

    • Word count: 1335
  14. To what extent was the German government responsible for the outbreak of the First World War in 1914?

    Germany's aims were to keep peace and that could be done by not unsettling the present superpowers (Britain, France, Russia and Austria-Hungary-A-H) Consequently, and some could say inevitably, this created the first sense of "paranoia" (a key feature which we will come to see) that other countries will feel threatened by the sudden ambitions of Germany. From this point forward, the other countries were encountering a first-time experience on a newly formed country wanting to progress into their "rankings". Germany, whose top priorities were to develop, Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism and Capitalism may not have realized it but they were sure to unsettle the balance of power/friction if they continued and succeeded with their aims.

    • Word count: 2784
  15. How far did the problems of his reign stem from Edward VI's minority?

    However, Somerset manipulated the court and was named Lord Protector. One person was ruling England, meaning that he was carrying out his own views on matters, there was no consultation. Somerset, to a certain extent was more concerned with power than with the country. Somerset's disastrous foreign policy can ultimately be blamed on Edward's minority. Somerset was at war with Scotland as well as France. He was unable to secure a marriage alliance with between Edward and Mary Queen of Scots, which later married the French Dauphin. With the war he also drove England into further debt, thus Edward's minority meant that Somerset was causing more problems than he was solving.

    • Word count: 793
  16. How far was the monarchy stronger in 1603 than in 1485?

    Thus it ensured that there were no over powering nobles. However, there is no partnership between the nobles and king; this is a source of weakness. We must take into consideration that he was brought up in exile and thus he doesn't trust anyone, nonetheless he rules through fear and this is a weakness. We see the abuse of power and factions in Edward VI's reign. This leads to two rebellions and the councillors went against Henry's wishes. This weakened the monarchy and created unrest. Thus it is perhaps right to say that with regards the nobility, the monarchy was perhaps only slightly stronger in 1603, but even then the same problems remained.

    • Word count: 1954
  17. How the Inca adapted and strived in their environment

    Another part of the kingdom was at a lower elevation which supplied land for farming. The Inca conquered these challenging environments by zoning three different areas for raising different crops and livestock. Zone 1 (below 5,000 ft) also called Yunga was for fruit trees which included avocado and limes. Zone 2 (between 5,000 - 10,000 ft) called Quechua is where the Inca grew food like corn, potatoes, and peanuts. Zone 3 the highest elevation was was where the Inca raised llamas and alpacas. They used these animals for wool, food, and as a means for transportation.

    • Word count: 1182
  18. Education in the Middle Colonies

    Pennsylvania's case amply illustrates both these conditions. The constitution (usually known as the "Frame of Government") which Penn granted to Pennsylvanians in 1682 included requirements for a public school system stressing religious values and a practical education in some skill or trade for youngsters over twelve years of age. That these ideas in Penn's mind may be considered noble, but no Governor, Assembly, or Council in the colony ever saw that they were enforced. Instead, schooling was left up to the various religious groups to handle as they chose.

    • Word count: 1055
  19. Did the Radical Reformation fail because it lacked the support of the Holy Roman princes?

    The aim of this essay is to determine whether this difference was decisive for the fate of the 16th-century Anabaptist movement. One chief reason for the lack of Anabaptist support among the princes and authorities of the Holy Roman Empire was that a key theological doctrine of Anabaptism envisioned a separation of church and state, and viewed magisterial power, swearing of oaths and the use of coercive force (e.g. conscription) as "Satanic".1 Consequentially, an Imperial Mandate was soon declared by Charles V at the Second Diet of Speyer in March 1529, with the directive that "every Anabaptist and rebaptised person

    • Word count: 1127
  20. In what way did the Hitler regime try to promote greater social equality among the Germans?

    Many n**i policies were introduced with the benefit of the working class in mind. The most immediate and valuable benefit which almost all Germans enjoyed was a job by 1936. The Nazis increased the number of training schemes for the unskilled and apprenticeships for working class school leavers, which on average increased most workers earnings by 20 percent by 1939 compared to 1933. n**i paternalism, directed by organisations such as Strength through Joy and the Beauty of Labour, raised morale and distracted workers from their monotmous work life, increasing the regimentation of their lives.

    • Word count: 667
  21. To what extent was the Third Crusade a defeat for the Latins?

    The inherent political instability, which had plagued feudal Europe, was no less different in the Holy Land. This can be seen in the dealings of Kingship of the crusader states. It was decided that Guy was to remain king until his death whereby Conrad de Montfereet would then inherit the throne. They were both to share royal revenues and Conrad was to hole a large northern county consisting of Tyre and if he should recover it, Sidon. However Conrad, the French crusaders and the local barons, none of whom had ever really accepted the 1191 compromise, constantly challenged this. It had thus resulted in direct negotiations with Saladin and a failed attempt to seize Acre for Conrad.

    • Word count: 2003
  22. The b****y code

    The thought processes behind the action of hanging during the b****y Code were that the harsher the punishment the ultimate result in the reduction of crime. Therefore acting as a deterrent. The hanging was performed as a sort of ritual ceremony in the presence of a priest (the upholder of the ultimate law - god)

    • Word count: 447
  23. Is Utilitarian field of thought still present in todays policing

    (Briggs J, Harrison C, McInnes A and Vincent D 1996) The arrival of a new type of policing force would simply bestow more power upon the rich, and would control their already limited rights. There was widespread fear amongst the rich living in the city of London, that changes in policing would alter the privileges they had been enjoying under the old policing system. There were also concerns about the civil rights the creation of a local body would bring. A change was urgently needed. The government was being called upon to respond to rebellion taking place from the poor.

    • Word count: 1284
  24. Romaneque

    I think as the times changed, the architecture did too. Just as our architecture today is not same as it was 20 years ago. As the religion from the Romanesque period became less evident, and humanism increased, it caused many changes in the church, as well as its architecture. In the Romanesque period, the cathedrals were built to be heavy and strong. They had thick walls, and were built to bear incredible weight. The cathedrals of this time were very dark and gloomy.

    • Word count: 520
  25. Why was Ireland Partitioned

    While Gladstone prepared an Irish policy, Lord Randolph Churchill prepared for his own visit to Ireland. In February, he wrote, "I decided some time ago that if Gladstone went for Home Rule, the Orange card would be the one to play"4. Ninety-three of Gladstone's own Liberal MPs voted against the bill, and it was defeated. Disturbed at how close to success the Home Rulers had come, there was an influx of new members into the orange order. The Ulster loyalist anti repeal union was also established.

    • Word count: 1676

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