Outline the main changes in western latin christendom between the periods 910 and 1081

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Outline the main changes in Western Latin Christendom between AD 910 and 1085.

The 10th and 11th Centuries contained some of the most important changes in Western Latin Christendom in its existence.  These changes have left the Church and Europe more recognisable as the establishments we know today.  The most obvious of these were the reform movements in the later part of the 10th and 11th Centuries, which climaxed under Leo IX and Gregory V11.  There were also several equally important but subtly different changes which contributed to the greater part of this reform.  An example of this is the evangelical revival that leads to a growth in religious life, and a cleansing of the Church which climaxed in the Orthodox Schism, and the investiture contest between the Pope and the Emperor of Germany.

        The reform movements of the 10h and 11th Centuries sought out a moral reform whereby lay rulers would appoint good men as priests and Bishops, who would in turn hasten the reform.  The movements also aimed to stop corruption in the Church, especially the sin of simony, which was the purchasing or selling of sacred things, e.g. Holy orders.  At around 1000 AD the Church was predominantly governed by lay people, who built the Churches or monasteries on their land, and consequently felt that they had the right to appoint the next priest or abbot, this became known as ‘lay investiture,’ and in this sense the Church became ‘privatised’.  This posed a series of problems for the Church, the most serious of which were revenues, as the revenues that it should have been receiving were going back to the families who owned the land, rather than back to the Church. Subsequently religious communities were loosing out as this lose of revenues meant that there was a decline in the qualities of their lives, and so undermined the idea of religious life, and as a further consequences there were increasing cases of simony and married priests.  The result of these problems was that by the 10th century many priests, monks, and nuns were not happy, and this led to a series of reform movements, through several different communities and people.

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        The first stage of this reform was found at the monastery of Cluny in France.  Founded in 910AD Cluny was a reformed Benedictine monastery.  The monks tried to revive the liturgical life of the order, concentrating on the divine office and the arts e.g. plainsong.  Cluny became the centre of a series of smaller monasteries, and started the first real monastic order.  As a result of this, the Abbot of Cluny was exceptionally powerful and was able to influence the rest of the Christendom in a very monastic way, the Abbots of Cluny especially took a strong stance against married ...

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