The causes of the 1848 revolution of the Italian states

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The Causes of the 1848 revolution in the Italian states. [12]

Italy made progress towards unification, during the Napoleonic period, however at the Congress at Vienna the country was broken up into copious small states, mostly under the Austrian influence. There were strict censorship of the press, subjective arrests without trial which helped control the spread of liberal and national ideology.

One of the unifying factors among the nationalist, and the cause for the revolution, was the hatred of the Austrian rule in Italy. They directly governed Lombardy and Venetia and the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily and other parts were all run by despotic Austrians. Another reason that the majority of the citizens of Italy detested the Austrians as they exploited Italian citizens with high taxes and conscription and job preference were given to German speakers, there was no meritocracy, which dissatisfied the middle classes. The Austrian 1820s intervention in Naples and Navara and the Papal states in 1831 was another factor for the cause of the revolution.

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The election of Pope Pius the IX in 1846 played a central role foremost up to the revolution of 1848. He was a not a liberal though he wished to be loved by his people. He removed press censorship, by 1848 almost a hundred different newspapers existed in the Papa; States, introduced financial and legal reforms even suggested a custom union, much like the Zollverien in Prussia.  The Pope granted amnesty to hundreds of exiles and more than thousand political prisoner, who later became leaders of the revolution. In January 1814, Sicily against Naples, to gain its independence, Pope Pius ...

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