Although it was not purely popular protests that led to the Soviet bloc being undermined. Jones is Source 10 begins to develop that the reasoning behind opposition for communism were that state controlled economies were ‘insufficient,’ and ‘unable to produce sufficient food or good for the people.’ Dockrill and Hopkins in source 12 also support this, quoting that in the ‘1980’s, there were enormous economic problems.’ Also by the end of the 1980’s the technology used in the USSR was out of date, and they were also slow to develop new technology. This was made worse by the advance in the West, which is also supported in source 12 which states that there was ‘an industrial revolution with the emergence of computer technology,’ giving off a structuralism view in the reasoning of the end of the cold war.
Source 3 focuses on both the role of Gorbachev and Reagan in ending the cold war. Hobsbawn focuses on the end of the cold war was due to the mutual agreement that a nuclear arms race had to come to an end. Reagan in the past spoke of a nuclear free world, and this was also the objective that Gorbachev had. Although Reagan may not believe this may have been one of Gorbachev’s objective, therefore Hobsbawn praises the role of Gorbachev in the end of the cold war by suggesting that, ‘the world owes so much to Gorbachev as he succeeded in convincing the US government that he meant what he said.’ Although it can also be considered that Gorbachev had no choice but to reform due to the economic state in the Soviet Union, as which is supported in sources 10 and 12. Source 11 is a combination of the role of gorbachev and a triumphalist, as it suggests that Reagan also contributed in the ending of the cold war, who was not put under pressure to go against his beliefs by outside distractions.
Therefore in conclusion popular protests did play a key role in the end of the cold war. Due to Gorbachev and his glasnost political movement, this caused a relaxation in the communist system, and Eastern European nations taking the advantage of the freedom causing popular protests, undermining the Soviet bloc. Despite this it was a combination of Gorbachev, Reagan, and a poor economic state, and popular protests that caused the decline of the Soviet bloc, eventually leading to the end of the cold war.