To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?

Authors Avatar
A: Plan of the Investigation


To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?

Plan of the Investigation:

Many social reforms occurred throughout the 1900's for the equality of all citizens including African-Americans. Black people did not have the same rights/opportunities as those of who were white in colour. Sparked by Rosa Park's refusal to abide her seat, the Montgomery Bus Boycott was one of the social reforms, which led to the reversal of the Montgomery Bus Ordinance. This Historical investigation will take an in-depth look at Rosa Park's actions and see if it was the cause of the reversal. In the Summary of Evidence section, the investigation will cover Rosa Park's career, which lead to her defying the bus driver. Finally, the contributions of others such as Martin Luther King Jr. who helped with the formation of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance will be taken into consideration as well as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. An analysis of these sections will indicate the extent of Rosa Park's contributions.

(150 words)

B: Summary of Evidence

Rosa Parks

* Born in Alabama, 1913

* Faced racial segregation

* Attended all-black school

* Involved in African Methodist Episcopal Church when she was young

* Married Raymond Parks, activist

* Active in Montgomery NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1943 as secretary

* Worked as seamstress

* Advisor to NCAAP Youth Council

* Worked with Voters League

* Attended a civil rights workshop weeks before her arrest (Highlander Folk School, Tenesse)1


December 1st, 1955

* Parks refused to give up her seat after coming home from work at department store

* Arrested and fined $14

* The Montgomery Improvement Association, leader Martin Luther King Jr., started bus boycott (December 5th, 1955)

* One day protest

* African-Americans refused to ride bus and walked, carpooled, biked and took cabs designated for blacks to work2

Montgomery Bus Boycott

* Protest lasted 381 days

* Martin Luther King Jr. was leader

* Parks became the face of the boycott

* More than 40,000 (90%) black's particpated in the event

* National coverage increased support from outside groups, getting more organizations involved with the boycott

* November 1956 U.S Supreme Court affirmed Browder v. Gayle and racial segregation ended on civil buses calling it unconstitutional

* Ended december 20, 19563

Contribution of Others

Martin Luther King Jr.

* Educated, had doctorate in philosophy

* Leader of MIA, lead protest

* Was young and not well-known at the time

* Good candidate because ha had no enemies or friends

* Called for meeting at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church with famous black leaders
Join now!

* Encouraged a peaceful protest4

Raymond Parks

* Was a barber at the time

* Member of NAACP, collecting money to support Scottsboro Boys5

* Convinced Rosa Parks to attend NAACP meetings6

Robinson, Jo Ann Gibson

* Taught at underfunded, segregated Black College

* Active in Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, president of Women's Political Council in 1950

* Complained to Montgomery City Commission about seating practices earlier

* Warned mayor of bus boycott after Brown v. Board of Education

* Mimeographed and distributed more than 35,000 leaflets calling ...

This is a preview of the whole essay