To what extent was england subordinate to Williams concerns in Normandy?

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Lizzie Bloxham

To what extent was England subordinate to Williams concerns in Normandy?

To answer the question whether England was subordinate to Williams’s concerns in Normandy we need to look at the events that were occurring in England and in Normandy around the years of 1075. Between the years of 1074-1075 William King of England lived in Normandy. By 1069 William had conquered the north and south of England and built many castles. Chester was the last township to fall in 1070.This was a period of unhappiness and unrest. Saxon England was constantly on the verge of rebellion, which was a constant concern for William throughout his reign. In 1075 a group of Norman knights and one surviving Saxon leader, Waltheof revolted and fought a battle but lost. Waltherof was a Saxon Earl half trusted by William the Conqueror. William made further efforts to win his loyalty by marrying him to his niece Judith and giving him the earldom of Northumbria in 1072. Waltherof joined the revolt of the Norman earls in 1075 and was once again defeated much like the revolt of 1069.

The revolt of the Earls was the last major resistance of Williams control throughout the Norman Conquest. It was caused by Williams’s refusal to sanction the marriage between  and  in . This was due to William had been living in Normandy betwenn 1074 1075.The revolt In William's absence, Ralph, his new brother-in-law Roger  and Waltheof began the revolt, but it was plagued by disaster.It is belived that Rodgers motives were that of him not receiving automatic privillages and the high political power his father (William Fitz Osbern) once had being deprived of all his lands and of his Earldom. Suport came from the King of Denemark, However william ensured that the revoult was crushed before the Danes arrived. Ralphs forces were defeated in cambrige and he later returned to his castle in Norwich. Waltheof however soon  confessed the conspiracy to  before the revoult even got into motion. This revoult brought William to leave matilda and return back to england in the autum of 1075 whilst the Danes fled home returning with a fleet of 200 ships under  and , which failed to do anything effective. Roger was later tried before the Great Council, deprived of his lands and earldom, and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment.Waltheof was arrested, and after being brought twice before the king's court was sentenced to death. On the   he was beheaded on , near  and  was regarded by the English as a  with miracles claiming to occur his tomb at . This incident needed Williams attention and diverted his attention towards england, however there is no proof that william returned to england he just allowed his courts to order the rebellion to be ended. William obviously approved of his execution whilst being in Normandy. William the Conqueror was said to have been obsessed by guilt over his treatment of Waltheof until his own death a decade later. However some belive thatWilliam the Conqueror had no mercy and Waltheof was beheaded. Waltheof was the last earl to be executed for rebellion in England until the 14th Century.

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          This was not Williams’s only concern in England. Previously Further north the boundary with Scotland was very unclear, King Malcolm III was enforced him and his men into England (Yorkshire area). Yet again, William moved swiftly and moved land and sea forces north to invade Scotland. The Treaty of Abernethy in 1072 marked a truce, which was reinforced by Malcolm's eldest son being accepted as a hostage. These events showed Williams’s strength in managing invasions and threats to his power. Previous rebellions had no structure or clear leader to them, however this one did and ...

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