Why did the 1905 revolution fail to overthrow the Tsarist regime?

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Why did the 1905 revolution fail to _                                                                              overthrow the Tsarist regime?

It can be argued that the 1905 Revolution was little much more than outbreaks of rage with the intention of forcing concessions rather than revolutionary actions to overthrow the government, despite this however the revolution was still a large threat to the Tsardom, in defiance of this the Tsardom remained after 1905, not without its wounds however. Although the Tsar was not overthrown many commentators would say it was still an important foreshadowing event for the 1917 revolution.

In every despotic regime the army is a key part, as one of the four pillars of Tsarist Russia they supported Nicholas during the revolution after returning from the Russo-Japanese war. Albeit the Army were not only loyal to him because they wholly supported the Tsardom, once and only once the army had received pay and changes to conditions of service it supported the Tsar fully, and were employed in putting down the revolution in the cities and later revolts in the countryside. He benefited as whole and their willingness to destroy the Soviets, in particular the St Petersburg soviet which was stormed and the leaders arrested, this way the Army stopped the Soviets before they could cause damage to the regime. Willingness on the part of the regime to take such harsh action ended revolutionary activity in the large towns, troops were sent around the vast country to restore order this was achieved by January 1906.  Although outbreaks of violence in the cities – Moscow, St Petersburg and on the Sebastopol – continued, those who were not arrested by the army fled abroad as to escape punishment.  Thus the army were an essential part of Nicholas’ rule, during the revolution they dispersed and weakened the opposition antagonists. Nicholas’ reign could have been threatened, if the Potemkin Mutiny had completed what it set out to do; the army may have turned against him, however it was a failure and those troops returning from Japan were loyal to the Tsar both because of raw loyalty and economic benefits. Without the army Nicholas would have been overthrown easily, because of this, this is the most important reason as to why the Tsar remained. In addition to the Army, Okhrana and the Cossacks were the “Black Hundreds”; the Tsar made use of frightened right wingers who came forward after the October Manifesto to defend the Tsar, throughout November and December they attacked revolutionaries, students, nationalist Poles, Fins and mostly Jews. This helped to provoke the underlining anti-semantic feelings in Russia promoting more hatred toward the national minorities from the wider Russian public; an example of an attack was at Odessa where 500 Jews were killed. This reaffirmed the Tsars feelings toward national minorities and further helped the Tsardom to eradicate opposition.  The Black Hundreds coupled with the Army meant that the Tsar was able to stay in power, without both of these he would have fallen at the hands of the people.

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Although the army were the most important reason for the continual Tsarist rule, the opposition were however disunited and had no clear leader. It can be argued that if they did have even two strong leaders like in 1917 that they would have overthrown the Tsar, all of the opposition groups – the workers, middle classes, students and wider public did not combine to create a co-ordinated and effective opposition. As none of the main revolutionary groups took part, the Social Democrats because Lenin was not currently in Russia and the Social Revolutionaries were a terrorist organisation with a wide ...

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