• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why were the Bolsheviks able to defeat their opponents by 1922?

Extracts from this document...


Why were the Bolsheviks able to defeat their opponents by 1922? Following the Bolshevik accession to power in the October Revolution many obstacles stood in the way to Bolshevik absolutism. The external and internal enemies of Communist Bolshevism actively threatened to topple Lenin and his Party. However it was the ability of the Party to suppress or negotiate with its enemies, that helped the Bolsheviks consolidate power by 1922, and do away with their enemies. Though the Party in 1917 ruled with a degree of popular support, institutions of coercion were quickly established to consolidate the power of the Bolsheviks. The first step to Bolshevik absolutism was political streamlining. ...read more.


The Bolsheviks willingness to use any force "the ends justifies the means" is best represented in War Communism- the radical policies used by the Party to sustain the Red Army. Under War Communism the resented food requisitioning was established to feed the Army. Despite the suffering and food shortages amongst the civilian population, the food requisitioning detachments confiscated grain at gunpoint from the farmers. Thus the Red Army was well fed, and had high morale. The Red's control of the railways and the central highlands gave them a huge tactical advantage. They were unified, and quickly mobilized to the different fronts to defend Petrograd. ...read more.


The growing resentment of the Party had climaxed bin 1921 with the Kronstadt uprising. A group of sailors, previously called the "heroes of the October Revolution" spoke out against Bolshevik absolutism and War Communism. In the countryside, peasants had also started a potential civil war with the food requisitioning detachments. Thus the Party woke up to the severity of the crisis and introduced NEP, a partial return to capitalism, and more importantly, a steam valve to growing pressure against the Party. In summary, the Party was able to defeats its external and internal opponents with a combination of divide and rule, and strategic retreats. The Party's desperation to survive the early years of government, and resolve and unity within the Party led it to its position of uncontested power in 1922. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Lenin and the Bolshevik revolution.

    It was only at this point, some three weeks before Lenin's return, that the party had adopted a moderate line. Had this line not been reversed, Shliapnikov, who was vocally unhappy, probably would have left. Molotov was more reticent, but he and Zalutsky might well have followed.

  2. Why were the opponents of the Bolsheviks unable to defeat them in the civil ...

    They used the strategic method of propaganda to do this. As the Russian civil war became a reality, the Bolshevik hierarchy saw the need to replace the provisional Red guards with a stronger and permanent force. The Red army was successful and victorious because they were heavily committed to lead the nation to Communism.

  1. Why did the Franco-Prussian war happen and why were the Prussians able to defeat ...

    These southern German states were monarchies but there were large liberal movements, both monarchist and liberals resented uniting with the north evidence is the Progressive Party firmly opposed unification and they did have some positions of influence. If there was a war between France and Prussia then they would side

  2. Explain why the Bolsheviks triumphed over their domestic and foreign opponents between 1917 and ...

    So, from now, we can anticipate that it was going to be a struggle for Lenin and the Bolsheviks to establish a communist society. The Bolsheviks really lacked majority support in the country as a whole. So the question at this time was, how they were to keep themselves in power, and yet still allow free elections.

  1. Explain Trotsky's Contribution to the Success of the Bolsheviks up to 1922

    the nobility was given to the peasants, workers should any work a 48-hour week, all factories were to be taken over by the workers and all banks and foreign trade were to be taken over by the government acting in the name of the workers.

  2. How was Stalin able to defeat both his left and right opponents?

    Stalin was now in charge of administration and thus could refuse entrance to whomever he wished, especially his enemies. This his grip on power strengthened as no people who opposed his methods could enter the CPSU or SOVNARKOM and thus his power base grew - a useful tool should he be in competition with a senior party member eg.Trotsky.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work