There are three different types of hackers they are; Black hat hacker, white hat hacker and grey hat hacker.
- Black hat hacker – they are dangerous and highly skilled hackers. They will make it known to people how good they are at hacking and how dangerous they are.
- White hat hacker – they are usually employed by companies to test the security of their websites.
- Grey hat hacker – they are very unpredictable and because of this it makes them the most dangerous of all three hackers.
Many big website have been hacked such as Yahoo and Play, this is not well known because companies involved do not want the news to be publicised mostly because it would not be good for business as people may think that the website is not safe and will not use it. 22% of the top mobile applications have been hacked.
Stalking only became a crime in 1997 and a criminal offence in England and Wales in 2012. Cyber stalking activities include sending repeated, unwanted messages, it could be ordering stuff on behalf of the victims, publicising the victims personal information, spreading false information about the individual and encouraging others to harass the victim. There are 2 types of stalking, direct and indirect. Direct is most common and often starts with an email. Indirect is stalking with the use of billboards and advertisements. In 1999, Ellison carried out research on Working to the Halt of Abuse Online 2000 and found that 39% of stalkers began contact with the victim via email. Only 1% of stalkers didn’t use the internet to first get in contact with the victim. Stalkers are likely to be an ex-partner, however half of all stalkers aren’t known by the victim. There were websites set up for people to stalk there ex partner online, they were called ‘Avengers Den’ and ‘Get Revenge On Your Ex’ they were designed so people could crush their ex-partners self esteem and they could fake SMS them. 87% of cyber stalking victims are young women (Working to the Halt of Abuse Online). Only 50% of cyber stalking activities are reported to the authorities. There are three groups of cyber stalkers; Simple Obsessional, these stalkers have been in a relationship with the victim, the victim has tried to call it of but the stalker refuses to accept it and becomes obsessed with the victim. Love Obsessional, these are stalkers who haven’t had a relationship with the victim but they believe that themselves and the victim have a special connection. Erotomaniac stalkers believe that the victim is deeply in love with them, it can be messages through the media that lead them to believe this. (Melroy, 1996; Mullen et al., 1999)
Cybercrime violence has links with terrorism. Cyber terrorism is when an attack is made against a person or property. Cyber terrorism can even be causing a person to be fearful of being harmed. Al Qaeda which is an international terrorist organisation which began in the late 1980’s has been on the internet from the late 1990’s. These Al Qaeda sites may only be on the web for a matter of hours before they are shut down, however they are soon replaced by another one. There were an estimated 5,600 sites as of January 2008 and 900 appearing each year (Weimann 2008).
Policing Cyber Crime:
Cybercrime has no limits and it can be uncontrollable, there are so many crimes committed online it is hard to keep track of all them. Also it is difficult to see a pattern in cybercrimes.
Cybercrime is still developing, there are more viruses every day, it is the fastest moving type of crime. This may be because many people may be committing cyber crime without knowing it, for example people may not know when they are downloading music illegally. Cyber crime is growing and growing. The internet’s characteristics make cybercrime policing very hard, especially hackers, they are so skilled and make sure they do not get caught. There are state funded public police organisations set up to help police cybercrime and put a stop to it. There are also state funded non police and non public policing organisations. ISPs are set up as well as internet users forming groups to protect themselves from cybercrime.
There are specialist units in place for policing cybercrime for example Europol which is the European law enforcement agency and Interpol which is the world’s largest policing agency with 109 countries involved. They connect policing communities to make the world safer. Forensic Investigation Units, CID/ Fraud Squad, Computer crime units and child protection units are specialist units that deal with cyber crime. The aim for the future is to bring in some form of legislation that cuts down on cyber crime and also to stop cyber crime from starting in the first place.
To conclude the internet has proven to be very dangerous and cyber crime is developing rapidly. People have to be extremely careful while using the internet and not fall into the hackers trap.
Warren, P and Streeter, M (2005). Cyber Crime. London: Vision Paperbacks. 1-19, 19-45, 45-72.
Here's what a teacher thought of this essay
Overall this essay is a reasonable attempt that describes many of the things that together make up cyber crime. The essay contains many example and does quantify some points although it would benefit from more of this towards the beginning (see comments about this). "Examine" as a key word in the title is always difficult to interpret correctly and does lend itself to the production of a more narrative approach which this is. I would be looking for more analysis of the contribution of the points raised to the overall growth and proliferation of cyber crime. Another element which would increase the quality of the essay is use of some more key vocabulary associated with cyber crime - like detectability, anonymity and so on. In addition, whilst the international element is mentioned in some detail, the point made in one of the comments about how the very nature of the internet lends itself to the growth of cyber crime it does also lend itself to the detection and bringing those responsible to justice - all but the very best hackers leave "footprints" and traces of their activity. This essay is a low B grade at and achieves 4 stars. It is in essence a good essay in terms of looking at the facets of cyber crime and describing them but it would benefit from greater depth of analysis.