Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.

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Emma Fields         Social Policy and Criminology

Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.

The internet was first created in the 1960’s, but it only really started to take off and develop in the last 20 years with big websites such as Google (1998) and YouTube (2005). With the internet developing and people knowing more about it, cybercrime then came about and since then it has grown and gotten more dangerous and more extreme.

There are several different types of cybercrime for example one is called cyber violence, this includes stalking and harassment, it can also be bullying people online via social networking sites and chat rooms. Cyber obscenity is another type of cyber crime which is sexual including porn sites. Cyber trespass is the crime of hacking sites and cyber theft is also another cybercrime which is credit card fraud as well as the illegal downloading of movies, music, books etc.  

Computer hackers are very intelligent, initially they started hacking sites simply because they were able to, and they wanted to explore the sites, at the start it was done just for fun. However it didn’t take long for these hackers to realise their potential and what they could actually be doing, soon it then escalated and they became more educated and more confident in hacking. These hackers could now be described as ‘attackers’.

There are a few types of attacks that can be made on a computer. One is Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. This is a system set up which sends out a fake email to an individual, it could be to check their password for online banking or make credit card payments etc. It will look very genuine to service users and often many of them fall into the trap. E-Mail bomb is another type of attack that can be made, hundreds of emails are sent to a service in order to shut it down. Another attack is a Trojan Horse, these are attachments sent to people perhaps through email, they may also pop up on the screen. They are very appealing to individuals for example ‘click here for your free iPad’ or ‘you are the 999,999th visitor, click here to claim your free prize’ these are likely to open up viruses. Other types of attacks include Worms, Network Scanning and Key Loggers. Argot is a type of language used for hacking sites and known by all highly skilled hackers.

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There are three different types of hackers they are; Black hat hacker, white hat hacker and grey hat hacker.

  • Black hat hacker – they are dangerous and highly skilled hackers. They will make it known to people how good they are at hacking and how dangerous they are.
  • White hat hacker – they are usually employed by companies to test the security of their websites.
  • Grey hat hacker – they are very unpredictable and because of this it makes them the most dangerous of all three hackers.

 Many big website have been hacked such as Yahoo and Play, ...

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

Overall this essay is a reasonable attempt that describes many of the things that together make up cyber crime. The essay contains many example and does quantify some points although it would benefit from more of this towards the beginning (see comments about this). "Examine" as a key word in the title is always difficult to interpret correctly and does lend itself to the production of a more narrative approach which this is. I would be looking for more analysis of the contribution of the points raised to the overall growth and proliferation of cyber crime. Another element which would increase the quality of the essay is use of some more key vocabulary associated with cyber crime - like detectability, anonymity and so on. In addition, whilst the international element is mentioned in some detail, the point made in one of the comments about how the very nature of the internet lends itself to the growth of cyber crime it does also lend itself to the detection and bringing those responsible to justice - all but the very best hackers leave "footprints" and traces of their activity. This essay is a low B grade at and achieves 4 stars. It is in essence a good essay in terms of looking at the facets of cyber crime and describing them but it would benefit from greater depth of analysis.