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AS and A Level: Information Systems and Communication

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 15
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  1. Analysis of a Virtual Reality system to train surgeons.

    screen -Screen capture must be done before any surgery was performed -Then, follow the audio instruction to start the training -To perform surgery, move the hand and grip the instrument needed in the simulation. Your view can be move 360 degree to expand the view if necessary -After the surgery is done, save the recording. The recording may be upload to the university server or the cloud. -The video then will be downloaded and analyse by senior surgeons and fellow trainees to provide feedback of your operation 2b)

    • Word count: 1189
  2. My Experience of IT Procedures and Policies in a large company

    But, this information needs to be secure so I also adopted security and confidentiality procedures to ensure that the data is kept safe. SharePoint requires a password in order to gain access to the data and I had to sign a confidentiality contract to ensure I didn?t pass any of the information to other people outside the business. I also was advised by my team to always lock my computer when I left it and to not leave papers on desks that someone could easily read and see confidential information.

    • Word count: 978
  3. Plan an installation and an upgrade of security software.

    I will also need to select the most appropriate location for the application to be installed as this could be the main hard drive or an external one. Lastly, I will define a suitable procedure for the installation. This will involve checking contents, performing virus scans, backing up data or configuring the software. Also I will consider timing. Installations or upgrades perform at different rates depending on the time that I complete them. I will complete the installation in the evening because it will run faster and more efficiently due to no traffic on the servers.

    • Word count: 766
  4. In this report I will justify reasons for upgrading Microsoft Office 2013 to Microsoft Office 2016.

    Not only that but thanks to Skype you can now have in-app integration, instant messaging, screen share, talk or video chat right in your docs. This is great for an IT company to ensure that all staff are working together as a team on different tasks, encouraging communication amongst the company. There are other skype benefits. There is now HD Video and co-authoring, Office 365 Groups that are now available as part of Outlook and on iOS, Android, and Windows and the ability to set of Office mobile apps across Windows, Android, and iOS. Additionally, there are benefits to Outlook.

    • Word count: 780
  5. Explain the requirements in preparing for a software installation and upgrade

    You will also need to select the most appropriate location for the application to be installed as this could be the main hard drive or an external one. Lastly, you need to define a suitable procedure for the installation. It will usually involve checking contents, performing virus scans, backing up data or configuring the software. Also timing is an important thing to consider. Installations or upgrades perform at different rates depending on the time that you complete them. If you doing it during the day, it will take a long time because there is high demand at this time.

    • Word count: 905
  6. Explain the importance of the user acceptance process for software

    There are other licences you can get, OEM (Original equipment manufacturer) license which is for software that is purchased by a hardware supplier and comes with your computer system. Also there is a site license which is unrestricted license that allows you to install the software as many times within your organisation as you need to. Open source license is a license that not only gives you access to the software but also lets you view, modify and share changes to the source.

    • Word count: 513
  7. Describe the potential risks of installing or upgrading software and evaluate the risks involved in the installation or upgrade of software and explain how the risks could be minimised.

    They have asked me to look at their current computer systems and advise on any new software installations or upgrades that may have been necessary. In this report I will describe the potential risks when downloading or updating software. When installing and upgrading software it?s important to be aware of the risks involved. It?s important to plan how the changes will affect the computer before you start so that you are prepared if the worst should happen.

    • Word count: 515
  8. Describe the potential prompts that initiate the installation of new or upgraded software

    There are many different reasons for why you would want to prompt an install or upgrade software. Perhaps it was because a bug was identified or upgrading would make the device run faster and more efficiently. It?s important to be aware of the prompts so that you can act on them quickly as they could be vital such as the security of the device. The first reason for upgrading or installation of software is problems with the existing system.

    • Word count: 505
  9. Explain the user side and server side factors that influence the performance of a website

    The modem converts received data to digital and vice versa. Because dial-up uses telephone lines the quality of the connection is not reliable and data rates are limited. A dial-up has an average speed from 2400bps to 56Kbps. It isn?t used widely today as it has been replaced with more efficient options like DSL and Broadband. ISDN is another internet connection. It stands for Integrated Services Digital Network. It is an international communications standard for sending voice, video and other data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. The average speed ranges from 64kbps to 128kbs.

    • Word count: 1308
  10. Explain the security risks and protection mechanisms involved in website performance.

    Many banks are the target of phishing. Banks such as Santander, HSBC and NatWest. Customers of their banks will receive an email claiming to be from their bank saying there is a problem and they need personal private information in order to fix it like bank account details and pin numbers; if successful they can steal lots of money from people?s accounts. Identity theft is a fraudulent practice of using somebody else?s name and personal information in order to obtain credit. Hypertext Transfer protocol is the data transfer protocol used on the World Wide Web which can help prevent identity theft.

    • Word count: 777
  11. Explain why modular elements are important for procedural programming

    Example: Procedural programs give the computer a series of instructions for example for a calculator program. Then carry out the task and calculations according to what the user specifies. Modular Design breaks down complex procedures into simple steps which can be turned into computer code much more easily. You can fit modules together very well so the interfaces are very important. For example, what data is passed into modules (parameters) and what data is passed out (return values). There are many advantages to modular programming. Firstly, modular programming is good because you can work on each module independently which means it?s easier as you are working on a small part.

    • Word count: 695
  12. Explain the key features of procedural programs

    Functions Functions are similar to procedures but return using a value. Functions are a named section of a program that performs a specific task. A function is a type of procedure or routine. Some programming languages make a distinction between a function, which returns a value, and a procedure, which performs some operation but does not return a value. Most programming languages come with a prewritten set of functions that are kept in a library. You can also write your own functions to perform specialized tasks. Pre-defined functions A pre-defined function is sequence of instructions that are identified by name in a computer program but is built in high level programming language.

    • Word count: 550
  13. Types of E-commerce

    This is because Amazon sell products from different suppliers but do not sell their own brand of products. Manufacturers Manufacturers create and sell their own products online. They do not allow other retailers to sell their products nor sell in traditional shops. They can provide lower costs or special offers to customers because they do not need to pay for retail rentals and overhead for a traditional shop. Dell is an example of a manufacturer because they make the computers and dell them online, not through shops like PC World. Existing Retailers Existing retailers are businesses who were originally a traditional shop (bricks)

    • Word count: 505
  14. Recommend methods to promote an e-commerce system for a local business.

    You will be able to find a frequently asked questions on a newsgroup, which is helpful for those who are not sure of anything. It is not a quick as some other methods like direct marketing. Information submitted may be submitted by people who do not know what they are talking about. I recommend that Sharron doesn?t make use of forums or newsgroups because there are better methods out there. Newsgroups and Forums are not quick and effective compared to other promotional methods like Direct Marketing or Search Engines.

    • Word count: 995
  15. Explain the potential risks to an organisation of committing to an e-commerce system

    To prevent hacking from occurring, specialist software can be used to look at the ports of the computer and to identify what ones are open as this is the way hackers can enter. Therefore the best way to stop hacking is to make sure all unused ports are closed by a firewall. A firewall is a network security system that acts as a barrier to protect the system from unauthorised access. Viruses are another key risk in e-commerce. A virus is a piece of code which is capable of corrupting the system or destroying data.

    • Word count: 827
  16. Explain the postives of introducing an e-commerce system to an organisation

    Because websites can be automated, there doesn?t need to be any staff like there is in highstreets stores. This also means more customers can shop when it?s convenient for them. Amazon would have been easy to set up because they don?t need premises, electric, water and other essential things when opening up a traditional store but only need a website and things that need to maintain the site. Relatively low start-up and running costs means it?s easy for people to start their own business. For a traditional store, you will need to buy property to have your store, overheads like electric and shelves to hold the stock which can all add up to be pricy.

    • Word count: 1032
  17. Explain the drawbacks of introducing an e-commerce system to an organisation

    E-commerce has everything online and customers may see this as a disadvantage because they might prefer human contact which you cannot have when shopping online. Customers who live in far distances the company may find it hard to deliver the products to them. Also you need to wait for the item which you do not have to do when buying in a traditional store.

    • Word count: 531
  18. Examine the social implications of e-commerce on society

    E-commerce is becoming even more popular and putting threat on traditional high street stores. For people with limited or no access to the internet ecommerce becomes less effective. Families may not be able to buy a computer and pay monthly for broadband meaning they cannot take advantage of lower prices. This is known as the social demand. Brick and Click organisations are changing the way people shop. Before e-commerce people had to physically go to the store but now they can buy these products whenever they want in the comfort of their home. This has led to different ways businesses run, to patterns of customer behaviour and to the businesses which exist in our high streets.

    • Word count: 1428
  19. Evaluate the use of e-commerce in a brick and click organisation

    Again it helps Asda to increase their customers. Without e-commerce Asda will only be able to sell goods to a customer near their store?s location. Another advantage is 24/7 trading, it means that Asda can sell their products 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. So again its flexible selling time enhances sales as customers can buy product whenever they want. This has an advantage over their brick stores because they will close at certain times whereas its 24/7 online.

    • Word count: 1650
  20. Compare Electronic Cheques and Digital Payment services payment systems used by e-commerce systems.

    A disadvantage of using electronic cheques means there is not ?float? time. This is the time before the money is debited. Money is instant through electronic cheques which means the customer doesn?t have any time to get funds in their bank account. Due to insufficient funds in an account e-cheques are usually ?bounced?. This causes delays in payment which then delays the time the product is provided by the business. As computers process the electronic cheques. Hackers can gain access to your banking information. Some fraudulent businesses also offer electronic banking which also means they can gain baking information.

    • Word count: 599
  21. Compare different payment systems used by e-commerce systems.

    There is also high protection. Card payments provide a guard against counterfeit money. Similarly, payments by card reduce the amount of cash on the premise. There is higher average sales amounts. Credit card payments enable card holders to make purchases and pay for them at a later date which often leads to higher total spending at the point of sale. Similarly, accepting card payments will encourage impulse shopping in customers as the purchase amount is no longer limited by the amount of cash they have. Adding on to impulse shopping is that card holders often benefit from various incentive programs offered by the card issuers encouraging frequent usage of the card which can in turn into impulse buying.

    • Word count: 912
  22. Discuss security issues in e-commerce.

    This knowledge can help them log in to your private online accounts. Firewalls are central points of attack. Firewalls are designed to prevent unauthorized network intrusions; however, if an intruder or malware slips through the system, your computer becomes vulnerable to additional system attacks. Once installed, malware can actually disable the firewall and processes used to run it, which is especially easy if you have no anti-virus software. A firewall, especially the Windows Firewall, is designed to block activities that look suspicious. Unfortunately, a block can also extend to legitimate network-intensive processes. In some cases, even running a legitimate program such as a messaging program or social networking plug-in won't work if your firewall concludes it's a malicious process.

    • Word count: 1508
  23. Illustrate the information flow between different functional areas and explain the issues related to the use of information

    They may have campaigns to get the businesses products well known or rebrand the business. Finance ? Finance are involved with money and future plans. They will prepare accounts like invoices, management accounts, and financial accounts for shareholders. They will also prepare wages and salaries for the employees and obtain capital and resources such as money for expansion or to pay for resources such as equipment and materials. They will also create budgets for every other department. Personnel ? Personnel is the part of an organization concerned with the appointment, training, and welfare of employees.

    • Word count: 732
  24. Identify the information systems used in a specified organisation

    ? Management information systems is the decision support of the business and will be used by management. The features of MIS include an input of queries and a response is then determined and is used to ask the same questions continually. The key elements are, data, people, hardware, software and telecommunications. The data in MIS must be stored in a logical way and is stored different to the input. It also needs to be summarised in order to create useful information and must be accurate. The people must be able to obtain the data and extract the information; it?s also important for the people to realise the importance of the data to the business.

    • Word count: 643
  25. Generate valid, accurate and useful information and justify the information selected to support a business decision-making process.

    However, the information I got was only for the average annual income for the UK only. It would have been more reliable if I had data from more areas of the world to make my findings more detailed and reliable. In addition, the ages were only specific and therefore having wider data would also allow to have more in depth rich detail to make my findings more specific. It?s also vital for information to be relevant. Relevant information is information that is specifically related to your business needs.

    • Word count: 596

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent does research support a link between stress and the immune system?

    "In conclusion to the experiments it is seen that stress is almost a definite cause of a suppressed immune system although it may not be the only reason that the immune system is suppressed. As it is not entirely sure whether stress causes the suppression of the immune system or the suppressed immune system leads to stress."

  • To What Extent Was the Poor Law a New Poor Law?

    "The new poor law was a new poor law. Due to social, political, and economical circumstances, it was necessary for the time, as the old system was ineffective, inefficient, and bad for the poor. The new laws meant that there were tighter controls over the parishes and the poor; this made less chance of uprisings and rebellions. I agree similarly to the ideas of Digby; recent investigations on the Old Poor Law have produced convergent conclusions. They emphasise that relief under the Old Poor Law was essentially a response to population growth, under-employment, and low wages, rather than their causes as the Royal Commission's report alleged."

  • This research that I've done will discuss about the effectiveness of the Light Railway Transit (LRT) in Kuala Lumpur.

    "10.5 CONCLUSION In a nutshell, Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway and Malaysia's Mass Transit have some similarity in term of technology and facilities. However, Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway is more advanced than Malaysia's Mass Transit as they had started very early in the late 60's. Effectiveness of Malaysia's Mass Transit can be improved gradually and hopefully they can be as good as Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway. APPENDIX 1. Map showing Hong Kong mass transit routes. Source: www.mtr.com.hk"

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