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AS and A Level: Information Systems and Communication

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  1. Expert Systems are used in all sectors of organizations to help aid users with their work

    Generally speaking an expert systems overall performance depends on the knowledge it can bring to bear on a problem to be solved. The quality of internal data processing in turn depends upon knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning strategy. Performance also depends upon the quality of data input. One of the most powerful attributes of expert systems is the ability to explain reasoning. Since the system remembers its logical chain of reasoning, a user may ask for an explanation of a recommendation and the system will display the factors it considered in providing a particular recommendation.

    • Word count: 3241
  2. How Have Mobile Phones Radically Changed the Expectations of Society and the Way it Behaves ?

    It is estimated that 75% of all adults in the UK today own or use a mobile phone and 83% of households in the UK have at least one mobile phone as shown in diagram 1. World wide it is estimated that one in six people have a mobile phone. When mobile phone technology was new in the UK, they were mostly bought by men for women incase they had a problem, for example, their car had broken down and they needed to get assistance but were afraid to walk for assistance because they felt threatened by the environment they were in.

    • Word count: 3745
  3. Communication and Supportive Skills For Care Work.

    Braille uses the sense of touch through raised marks to interpret messages. Television and Radio are household visual and sound systems to communicate information. They come under recorded information as a type of interpersonal communication that enable the re-experience of messages from the past. Other examples are CDs, videos, tapes etc. Without necessarily meaning to, everyone communicates complex ideas and emotions through their body language. Meaning others can experience different messages from the same stance. This includes a person's facial expressions, muscle tone and body posture which show how they feel.

    • Word count: 1546
  4. How do primates communicate?

    Vocalisations, facial expressions, odours and body postures together show information about the primate itself and its environment. Communication plays an important role in survival of primates, ecological information about location of food resources or predators can be exchanged. Unlike humans, primates lack a language but a form of communication is vital for all animals, primates lack the necessary vocal apparatus e.g. mobile position of tongue and larynx which is important in forming sounds that make up the language of humans. The lack of language in primates does not mean they lack the ability to think or communicate, research into communication systems has lead to information on cognitive processes, but it has evoked many ethical issues concerning their well being of them in research.

    • Word count: 1262
  5. An Investigation into communications systems in a real business or organisation.

    Interview 1 employee 24th November Interview 2 employees. Interview 3 employees 1st December Do Findings section: Part B. - 8th December Do Findings section: Parts A and C. - 15th December Do Conclusions section. Do Findings section: Part C 22nd December Do Recommendations section. Do Conclusions section. 29th December Produce Bibliography and Appendices. Do Recommendations section 5th January Put project together - Proof reading of the document. Produce Bibliography and Appendices 12th January Hand in. Put project together - Proof reading of the document. I predict that HAF will use a variety of communications, both internally & externally.

    • Word count: 6245
  6. Compare and contrast first past the post system and majority systems, and consider the advantages and disadvantages.

    The advantages of the first past the post system are that it produces a strong government as the party with the most votes is able to implement its decisions.2 It ensures there are strong links between an MP and the local community and means that small single-member constituencies mean that local people can raise the differences with their MP. This system is also easy to understand as everyone has a vote and the candidate with the most votes is the winner and the final argument in favour of the first past the post system is that it works and has been proved to work over many years.

    • Word count: 1262
  7. Should the UK reform the Electoral System used for General Elections?

    For example, in the 1983 British general election, the Liberal-Social Democratic Party Alliance won 25% of the votes, but only 3% of the seats. This means that not only does the system work against minor parties, it exaggerates the lead of successful parties thus poorly representing all sides. It is possible for a party to win fewer votes than another but acquire more seats, such as in February 1974 when Labour won 301 seats with 37.2% of the vote and the Conservatives won 297 seats with 37.9% of the vote.

    • Word count: 1948
  8. What form of electoral system would you recommend for Parliamentary elections in the United Kingdom?

    This is due to the way the first-past-the-post (FPTP) system works. Under our current FPTP system Britain is divided into 659 constituencies, with one MP representing each constituency, and the party winning the largest number of constituencies gains the victory at the general election, as long as this number exceeds the total of those won by the other parties. In recent British history, such an event has occurred once in February 1974 where the Conservatives won 37.9% of the vote and 297 seats, whilst Labour received 37.1% of the votes and 301 seats, however, the Liberals gained 14 seats which meant that Labour had no overall majority resulting in a hung parliament.

    • Word count: 2465
  9. This report examines a detailed action research process, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and discusses how the SSM approach might be of real help to managers in planning, resourcing, carryingout, monitoring and controlling new product development.

    (Information Systems Development: Methodologies, Techniques and Tools, 418, 1995) A methodology helps us in recognising the key components of a project, which include the following: * How to break a project into smaller, more manageable stages. * Determining what the outputs from the system will be * Tasks that will be carried out at each stage * Will there be any constraints on the system * The different categories of users/actors that will be involved with the system * How the project can be best managed * What support tools will be required 3.

    • Word count: 4479
  10. "How can West Ham United hospitality improve its communication?"

    The Stadium has approximately thirty bars, kiosks and suites in total. This department is vital for the club as a whole and it plays a major part in the financial aspect of the club and also the attitude of the supporters as they provide a service to the supporters before and during the game. There are kiosks that provide fast food for the fans, and there are also suites and lounges that are for the more upper class customers which provide three course meals and other luxuries. PROBLEM I currently work part-time at West Ham United Football Club in the hospitality department and have found that there is poor communication, this is indicated by confusion amongst staff members.

    • Word count: 1564
  11. A Brief History of UNIX.

    and the remaining code for the operating system was written in a high level language called C. The group worked primarily in the high level language in developing the operating system. As this development continued, small changes were necessary in the kernel and the language to allow the operating system to be completed. Through this evolution the kernel and associated software were extended until a complete operating system was written on top of the kernel in the language C. UNIX APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE Many proprietary operating systems have a simplified view of application behavior. The typical application reads some data from disk, tape or a terminal and does some processing.

    • Word count: 1496
  12. System Choice.

    Various colour coding systems convey information by relying on the interpretation of specific colours by the user. Interpretation should be as elementary as is practicable. Technological advances have led to the recent trend of minimisation making colour coding systems more substantial and prominent. Information needed: Set colour coding systems information will be required and information on what they convey. Colour coding is important to the objectives as it exhibits information so that electricity is used cautiously in operations of various voltages. Therefore should contribute to safety improvements. Legislation Electricity is a serious hazard. It cannot be seen and unless used safely, serious injury can occur.

    • Word count: 4341
  13. A study on recent advances in office automation.

    The company also recognise the rapidly changing traffic situations, which require flexible communications methods, so the feature of a possible splitting functions has also been implemented. This standard feature allows the air traffic controller to use radio and telephone simultaneously, for instance, using the right earphone for one function and the left earphone for the other. The new VCS 3020 include the development of a flat screen with 'tactile feedback', which have replaced the traditional, less reliable key panels. The smooth surface of the new screen with colour display incorporates reliable touch- screen buttons are new improvements made which also saves space through the layered structure of each panel.

    • Word count: 3425
  14. Network Communications.

    Cable types and facilities affect the type of transmission. Serial transmission sends each bit of data down the same cable in sequence; parallel transmission enable the eight data bits to travel along separate cables simultaneously. SIMPLEX: only allows the transmission of data in one direction between two devices DUPLEX (sometimes called Full Duplex) Allows transmission of data in both directions simultaneously. HALF DUPLEX (HDX) Allows bothway transmission of data between two devices but only in one direction at a time.

    • Word count: 1294
  15. Communication types.

    Memos are also useful for confirming telephone calls. External communication is when communication takes place outside the business not relating directly to the business. An example would be a letter being sent to other organisations in form of a very formal way. 3. High levels of informal communication might be harmful to a business because information that is communicated though grapevine may become disorted. This therefore means responsiveness is slow and the flow of the information around the firm is slow, hence and reducing the time for meeting the customers needs and wants.

    • Word count: 2085
  16. Communication within the work place.

    All organisations and places of work need to be able to communicate with other people within the organisation. The most successful companies throughout the world are those who encourage two-way communication. Communication can only take place if it is a two or more people passing information. What is Communication? Communication is the passing of information between two people. Processes When a message has been delivered for it to be effective communication you are required to receive feedback to know that the message has been understood, otherwise it is one-way communication which means there is no feedback from the message which has been delivered this can cause the message to be misunderstood by the person who is receiving the message.

    • Word count: 821
  17. ICT Systems in Organisations - Broadoak Community School.

    Laptops ? Laser Printers ? Inkjet Printers ? Servers ? Modems ? Scanners ? Digital Cameras/Web Cams ? LAN and Networking Desktop Computers These make up the main bulk of the Broadoak computer system. They are used for many different tasks, such as word processing, school accounts, the Internet and many other subject specific programs. The desktop computers are made up of a CPU (Central Processing Unit) that contains all of the operating equipment including the RAM (a set of storage locations that are volatile and so are lost when the power is turned off), ROM (a memory that holds information permanently and cannot be altered by the computer or programmer)

    • Word count: 1908
  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    With the aid of suitable diagrams, define what an expert system is and its' functional and structural components. One of the major results of the study of Artificial Intelligence is the development of a method that allows systems to be built that closely resemble human intelligence and logic in their implementation and evolution. These systems effectively emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The systems are recognised and commonly known as 'Expert Systems'. An expert system is used to effectively advise, diagnose and troubleshoot problems that previously were performed by human experts.

    • Word count: 3446
  19. Can it ever be justifiable to give a machine control over a risky activity? When? What happens when something goes wrong?

    The accident happened because normal operations were suspended due to an experiment taking place. Normal safety guidelines were disregarded. Too many control rods had been removed, thus creating more heat. The coolant levels had also been reduced, so the reactor got very hot. Due to the heat, the fuel rods shattered, causing two explosions. The top of the reactor lifted off, and the containment around the reactor was broken. Air entering the core reacted with the graphite to form carbon monoxide. This is flammable and caught fire, emitting radioactive smoke into the surrounding area.

    • Word count: 2144
  20. This report seeks to study the social phenomenon of Short Messaging Service (SMS) and youths in Singapore.

    We shall first look at the chronology of events that lead to SMS, and the background of SMS in Singapore, before explaining this phenomenon of the popularity of SMS among youths. Specific points will be backed up with a survey conducted. The survey is in the form of a questionnaire (Appendix 2) and was completed by 20 youths, age 13 to 21. The data collected in summarised in a table (Appendix 3) for easy reference. CHRONOLOGY OF SMS In 1982, the Europeans recognised that a single, transnational wireless phone system was a good way to ensure efficient roaming of subscribers among countries.

    • Word count: 5303
  21. Wikis. In order to decide which Wiki site to use, we looked at several Wiki Farms in order to select the best one:

    They are simple to use and very handy. Overall we were quite impressed with Seed Wiki. * SWIKI http://www.Swiki.net Apparently Swiki.net and its related NetUnify.org together host about 6,000 Wikis and it is a totally free service. The Swiki set-up is on the low-budget side. We had access problems during testing, and our registration brought up a message saying that our subscription had expired. Security settings can restrict access to members, restrict editing to members, or open a Wiki entirely to the public.

    • Word count: 2428
  22. The hospitality industry is in a unique position for the creation of an automated supply.

    The JIT purchasing philosophy only leads to increased costs for the suppliers due to the fact that buyers tend to move the problems to the upstream of the supply chain. In other words, the gain of some parties is a result of redistribution of costs among the members. The problem is therefore to examine the benefits and the costs of JIT purchasing from both the suppliers' and buyers' point of views. The next is to improve constantly in time. Improve in manufacturing and service, and to do it one at a time rather than more at a time.

    • Word count: 3510
  23. Communication in organisations.

    The Channel (media or medium) A channel is something through which we communicate. There are many types of channel of communication and these various types are very important to the marketer in planning marketing communications. Encoding In order to transmit and share messages and information, the sender must translate the message or information by means of a variety of signs and symbols appropriate for both the channel and the receiver. This process is known as encoding. It is important that the sender should use signs and symbols the receiver can interpret and understand.

    • Word count: 1550
  24. Emotional Minds - The Human Condition.

    An example of an early theory is the James-Lange theory. This illustrates how an emotional experience and emotional behaviour is interrelated physiologically. It simply states that an emotional responses such as physiological or autonomic responses result in an emotional experience. Without these physiological changes an emotion will not be felt. However neuroscientists believe that it is much more complex than this theory implies. The Cannon-Bard theory suggests that after the person undergoes an emotional stimulus they experience an emotion, which is a thalamic process, independently and simultaneously as they exhibit emotional behaviour, which originates from the hypothalamus.

    • Word count: 1968
  25. Business Skills.

    There are ways to solve these problems by using modern day technology. There are translation systems available which make international communication easier and it stops Language being a physical barrier. One web site I consulted tells us what these modern translation systems are capable of doing. "Automated translation systems will revolutionize communication--and may help Preserve languages at the same time. From the time of the Tower of Babel, mankind has been stuck between linguistic consolidation and segmentation. On the one hand, the world's numerous languages are a positive source of cultural diversity; on the other, they're an obstacle to our understanding each other.

    • Word count: 1007

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