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AS and A Level: Information Systems and Communication

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  1. Explain the security risks and protection mechanisms involved in website performance.

    Many banks are the target of phishing. Banks such as Santander, HSBC and NatWest. Customers of their banks will receive an email claiming to be from their bank saying there is a problem and they need personal private information in order to fix it like bank account details and pin numbers; if successful they can steal lots of money from people?s accounts. Identity theft is a fraudulent practice of using somebody else?s name and personal information in order to obtain credit. Hypertext Transfer protocol is the data transfer protocol used on the World Wide Web which can help prevent identity theft.

    • Word count: 777
  2. Explain why modular elements are important for procedural programming

    Example: Procedural programs give the computer a series of instructions for example for a calculator program. Then carry out the task and calculations according to what the user specifies. Modular Design breaks down complex procedures into simple steps which can be turned into computer code much more easily. You can fit modules together very well so the interfaces are very important. For example, what data is passed into modules (parameters) and what data is passed out (return values). There are many advantages to modular programming. Firstly, modular programming is good because you can work on each module independently which means it?s easier as you are working on a small part.

    • Word count: 695
  3. Explain the key features of procedural programs

    Functions Functions are similar to procedures but return using a value. Functions are a named section of a program that performs a specific task. A function is a type of procedure or routine. Some programming languages make a distinction between a function, which returns a value, and a procedure, which performs some operation but does not return a value. Most programming languages come with a prewritten set of functions that are kept in a library. You can also write your own functions to perform specialized tasks. Pre-defined functions A pre-defined function is sequence of instructions that are identified by name in a computer program but is built in high level programming language.

    • Word count: 550
  4. Types of E-commerce

    This is because Amazon sell products from different suppliers but do not sell their own brand of products. Manufacturers Manufacturers create and sell their own products online. They do not allow other retailers to sell their products nor sell in traditional shops. They can provide lower costs or special offers to customers because they do not need to pay for retail rentals and overhead for a traditional shop. Dell is an example of a manufacturer because they make the computers and dell them online, not through shops like PC World. Existing Retailers Existing retailers are businesses who were originally a traditional shop (bricks)

    • Word count: 505
  5. Recommend methods to promote an e-commerce system for a local business.

    You will be able to find a frequently asked questions on a newsgroup, which is helpful for those who are not sure of anything. It is not a quick as some other methods like direct marketing. Information submitted may be submitted by people who do not know what they are talking about. I recommend that Sharron doesn?t make use of forums or newsgroups because there are better methods out there. Newsgroups and Forums are not quick and effective compared to other promotional methods like Direct Marketing or Search Engines.

    • Word count: 995
  6. Explain the potential risks to an organisation of committing to an e-commerce system

    To prevent hacking from occurring, specialist software can be used to look at the ports of the computer and to identify what ones are open as this is the way hackers can enter. Therefore the best way to stop hacking is to make sure all unused ports are closed by a firewall. A firewall is a network security system that acts as a barrier to protect the system from unauthorised access. Viruses are another key risk in e-commerce. A virus is a piece of code which is capable of corrupting the system or destroying data.

    • Word count: 827
  7. Explain the postives of introducing an e-commerce system to an organisation

    Because websites can be automated, there doesn?t need to be any staff like there is in highstreets stores. This also means more customers can shop when it?s convenient for them. Amazon would have been easy to set up because they don?t need premises, electric, water and other essential things when opening up a traditional store but only need a website and things that need to maintain the site. Relatively low start-up and running costs means it?s easy for people to start their own business. For a traditional store, you will need to buy property to have your store, overheads like electric and shelves to hold the stock which can all add up to be pricy.

    • Word count: 1032
  8. Explain the drawbacks of introducing an e-commerce system to an organisation

    E-commerce has everything online and customers may see this as a disadvantage because they might prefer human contact which you cannot have when shopping online. Customers who live in far distances the company may find it hard to deliver the products to them. Also you need to wait for the item which you do not have to do when buying in a traditional store.

    • Word count: 531
  9. Examine the social implications of e-commerce on society

    E-commerce is becoming even more popular and putting threat on traditional high street stores. For people with limited or no access to the internet ecommerce becomes less effective. Families may not be able to buy a computer and pay monthly for broadband meaning they cannot take advantage of lower prices. This is known as the social demand. Brick and Click organisations are changing the way people shop. Before e-commerce people had to physically go to the store but now they can buy these products whenever they want in the comfort of their home. This has led to different ways businesses run, to patterns of customer behaviour and to the businesses which exist in our high streets.

    • Word count: 1428
  10. Evaluate the use of e-commerce in a brick and click organisation

    Again it helps Asda to increase their customers. Without e-commerce Asda will only be able to sell goods to a customer near their store?s location. Another advantage is 24/7 trading, it means that Asda can sell their products 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. So again its flexible selling time enhances sales as customers can buy product whenever they want. This has an advantage over their brick stores because they will close at certain times whereas its 24/7 online.

    • Word count: 1650
  11. Compare Electronic Cheques and Digital Payment services payment systems used by e-commerce systems.

    A disadvantage of using electronic cheques means there is not ?float? time. This is the time before the money is debited. Money is instant through electronic cheques which means the customer doesn?t have any time to get funds in their bank account. Due to insufficient funds in an account e-cheques are usually ?bounced?. This causes delays in payment which then delays the time the product is provided by the business. As computers process the electronic cheques. Hackers can gain access to your banking information. Some fraudulent businesses also offer electronic banking which also means they can gain baking information.

    • Word count: 599
  12. Compare different payment systems used by e-commerce systems.

    There is also high protection. Card payments provide a guard against counterfeit money. Similarly, payments by card reduce the amount of cash on the premise. There is higher average sales amounts. Credit card payments enable card holders to make purchases and pay for them at a later date which often leads to higher total spending at the point of sale. Similarly, accepting card payments will encourage impulse shopping in customers as the purchase amount is no longer limited by the amount of cash they have. Adding on to impulse shopping is that card holders often benefit from various incentive programs offered by the card issuers encouraging frequent usage of the card which can in turn into impulse buying.

    • Word count: 912
  13. Discuss security issues in e-commerce.

    This knowledge can help them log in to your private online accounts. Firewalls are central points of attack. Firewalls are designed to prevent unauthorized network intrusions; however, if an intruder or malware slips through the system, your computer becomes vulnerable to additional system attacks. Once installed, malware can actually disable the firewall and processes used to run it, which is especially easy if you have no anti-virus software. A firewall, especially the Windows Firewall, is designed to block activities that look suspicious. Unfortunately, a block can also extend to legitimate network-intensive processes. In some cases, even running a legitimate program such as a messaging program or social networking plug-in won't work if your firewall concludes it's a malicious process.

    • Word count: 1508
  14. Illustrate the information flow between different functional areas and explain the issues related to the use of information

    They may have campaigns to get the businesses products well known or rebrand the business. Finance ? Finance are involved with money and future plans. They will prepare accounts like invoices, management accounts, and financial accounts for shareholders. They will also prepare wages and salaries for the employees and obtain capital and resources such as money for expansion or to pay for resources such as equipment and materials. They will also create budgets for every other department. Personnel ? Personnel is the part of an organization concerned with the appointment, training, and welfare of employees.

    • Word count: 732
  15. Identify the information systems used in a specified organisation

    ? Management information systems is the decision support of the business and will be used by management. The features of MIS include an input of queries and a response is then determined and is used to ask the same questions continually. The key elements are, data, people, hardware, software and telecommunications. The data in MIS must be stored in a logical way and is stored different to the input. It also needs to be summarised in order to create useful information and must be accurate. The people must be able to obtain the data and extract the information; it?s also important for the people to realise the importance of the data to the business.

    • Word count: 643
  16. Generate valid, accurate and useful information and justify the information selected to support a business decision-making process.

    However, the information I got was only for the average annual income for the UK only. It would have been more reliable if I had data from more areas of the world to make my findings more detailed and reliable. In addition, the ages were only specific and therefore having wider data would also allow to have more in depth rich detail to make my findings more specific. It?s also vital for information to be relevant. Relevant information is information that is specifically related to your business needs.

    • Word count: 596
  17. Explain how Tescos use information

    They will use EPOS which stands for electronic point of sale; it is an automated till system used in many shops and restaurants. Tesco will use tills to monitor how many products are sold and if they need restock or reorder more items. When monitoring and controlling its activities Tesco can make immediate use of information from its operational support systems. When a customer purchases an item the EPOS system will track this and the data will be stored and keeps track of how much stock should now be in their store.

    • Word count: 566
  18. Describe the features and functions of information systems and explain how an organisation could improve the quality of its business information

    Processing - Processing is the method that turns data into information. There is simple and complex processing. Simple processing is adding all the items sold by a supermarket and producing totals. Complex processing is a computer program that does complex calculations and makes assumptions about missing data. Output ? outputs can be in two formats, graphical and textual. A graphical output is used for seeing the bigger picture, usually presented as charts, diagrams or pictures. Textual is used when data needs to be analysed in detail; it?s often presented in text and numbers.

    • Word count: 558
  19. Assess how issues related to the use of information affect an organisation

    A bank must back up files every week in case of a disaster. This is because millions of people around the world will rely on the bank for the access of their money. The backup file should be away from the original system so if there is a disaster both do not get destroyed. Health and safety There are health and safety issues regarding information systems. The screens, monitors and the way they are positioned all have strict regulations. Keyboards, mice, chairs and the desk must be positioned in a suitable and comfortable position for employees.

    • Word count: 924
  20. Evaluate the performance of a computer system and explain and justify improvements that could be made to a computer system.

    Furthermore, I changed the motion of the pointer to be slow to medium. This is because again it will allow the user to navigate more easily as it won?t be moving too fast that they cannot keep up. Keyboard I chose to allow the on screen keyboard this was done in to ease of access. This is going to make typing easier for the user as they can change the size of the virtual keyboard. The user may want to have an extremely large keyboard and therefore this gives them the option.

    • Word count: 1260
  21. Explain the purpose of operating systems

    Data Management Data management allows you to keep track of all the data stored on the computer or other storage devices. The application programs deals with the data by file name and location. The operating system?s file system knows where the data is stored and interacts with the application program. When data needs to be retrieved or saved, the application system cooperates with the operating system which opens, reads, writes and closes files. User interface Interface is commands which a user sets when communicating with the computer.

    • Word count: 828
  22. Explain the function of computer hardware components

    Processor The processor more known as the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a small chip; it is the main intelligence of the computer and controls everything that happens within the computer. The processor receives an output and input, and the processors job is to provide the correct output so that tasks can be completed by the user. The CPU gets instructions from the RAM (which is the input), reads and processes it and then sends back the data so that the relevant components can carry out the instructions. The speed of the CPU (central processing unit)

    • Word count: 2208
  23. Produce a Personal Development Plan

    (e.g. improved confidence, actually being able to apply the skill) Target Date Review dates and final target date for meeting needs Progress Review / Key Learning Points Consider the best methods to suit your preferred learning style Log all progress. Comment on key points To develop my Excel knowledge on formulas and other skills within the program such as pivot tables. I need to work on this area because when completing spreadsheets in the past, it has been difficult because I am not aware of all the formulas and skills to make it easy to create a database.

    • Word count: 512
  24. Discuss potential barriers to effective communication in the workplace.

    Therefore, due to these issues it became more difficult to communicate effectively. Background Noise Background noise in the workplace became a large barrier of effective communication at BP. We had meetings in the break area which meant that people were talking all around us. Although the meetings were informal it was still difficult to communicate to each other. Loud background noise can cause people to not be heard and would then have to shout to be able for them to hear which an unprofessional way to communicate in the workplace is.

    • Word count: 712
  25. Explain the principles of effective communication in the workplace.

    When answering questions even when not sure about the answer it?s important to speak confidently as if you know exactly what to say, if you do it will seem that you know extensive knowledge about the subject. During my internship I had to do presentations and after questions were asked. I made sure I was comfortable with the topic I chose so that when I was asked questions Engaging the audience It?s important to keep your audience interested throughout a presentation.

    • Word count: 513

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