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AS and A Level: Policy, Strategy & Systems
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
- Peer Reviewed essays 2
Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.4 star(s)
However it didn?t take long for these hackers to realise their potential and what they could actually be doing, soon it then escalated and they became more educated and more confident in hacking. These hackers could now be described as ?attackers?. There are a few types of attacks that can be made on a computer. One is Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. This is a system set up which sends out a fake email to an individual, it could be to check their password for online banking or make credit card payments etc.
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access with the intent to commit further offences * unauthorised modification of computer material In an e-commerce website, Computer misuse act can be used to prevent the website getting hacked by hackers. For example when a user gets registered with an e-commerce website such as Amazon where you have to put all the details including the card details. So if someone hacks into the amazons account, he/she can order products and it will add to the customer's account.
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It is the main piece of legislation that governs the protection of personal data in the UK. Although the Act itself does not mention privacy, it was enacted to bring UK law into line with the European Directive of 1995 which required Member States to protect people's fundamental rights and freedoms and in particular their right to privacy with respect to the processing of personal data. In practice it provides a way for individuals to control information about themselves. http://goo.gl/2oUHR Examples: It is important that Spanners 'R' Us keep both staff and customers information secure.
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Illegal music downloads. This Essay will treat and analyze main points of advantages and disadvantages of unauthorized media files sharing; Government's aspiration to put down a breach of copyright; the influence of free and unlimited music downloads on
Nowadays almost every Internet user has access to various computer programs for music downloads. For that reason, in a short time sharing music files has become a big issue for the music industry. Despite the fact, that downloading music from Internet is illegal, almost every internet user swaps huge amount of songs every day without any worries about the consequences, which may be versatile. Firstly, piracy downloading of music destroys sales of albums, which has become a huge loss for the music industry. According to the Independent news article "in 1997, 78 million singles were sold in the UK and last year, it was just 8.6 million" (The Independent, 8 July 2009), which shows, that amount of sold music singles has decreased almost by 90% in the last thirteen years.
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Threats to Organisations and Systems. Describe the countermeasures available to an organisation that will reduce the risk of damage to information.
Three types of threats to data Corruption Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during transmission, retrieval, or processing, introducing unintended changes to the original data. Computer storage and transmission systems use a number of measures to provide data integrity, the lack of errors. When data is placed on a portable format like a USB (Universal Serial Bus) you would expect it to keep safe and make certain that the data on there will not at any harm but in some cases you would be wrong.
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4575255.stm In this year Christmas, UK online sales will increase by 40% this year to �7 billion, up from �5 billion in 2005. It is predicted that an average of �4 million will be spent every hour in the 10 weeks up to Christmas. http://www.e-consultancy.com/news-blog/362164/online-shopping-boosts-october-retail-sales-figures.html Identify Theft The information age has provided criminals with lots of new opportunities for crime. ID theft is where someone collects other people personal data and uses them to open bank accounts and get credit cards, loans, state benefits and documents such as passports and driving licenses in their name.
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Software Many software applications are now available to download, update or upgrade from the Internet. The reason of software upgrades is extended warranty service which includes feature enhancements, incremental functionality, maintenance and bug fixes of software current has. Example the antivirus software, nearly everyday they are lots of new virus is develop, so the antivirus software would not has the new virus data so it need to update (download the new data from server of antivirus company) to protect the user pc. If not, the virus will damage the data on their computer. So this service is really done a good job to protect the user's pc.
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Computer crime can broadly be defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access
[LexisNexis, 2008] The three definitions used, for explaining the term computer misuse are quite different from each other. All the definitions covers the whole aspect of computer misuse for example the first definition used, of 'Computer Misuse Act' is quite a narrow definition which states three offenses, other definition of 'Cyber Crime' involves everything that is to be covered on the internet from child p*********y to infringements of copyrights etc. The last definition used, is 'Computer Crime' it is again a very broad definition and covers things like virus, hacking, alteration and deletion of data etc. The examples of these definitions are listed below: In England and Wales, under Computer Misuse Act, it is an offense to send
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It basically stops legitimate information to get through to the server and stop legitimate service to respond. This will make customers go to other websites and the company that has been attacked by this lose crucial customers and a significant amount of money as their website is not responding. This is done by a particular person sending lots of blank server request which overloads the server/system and it stops getting a request. Halting E-commerce Transactions If for instance a particular person hacks into a website they can basically stop transactions so that the organisations lose customers and money.
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By having an official website can give the organisation lots of benefits. Consumers will be able to see what kind of items they sell and whether they sell the right product for the right price that the customers are after. Other benefits are that it will also allow the other customers that are not local i.e. people from Liverpool or London etc, to see if they sell a particular product in their shop instead of driving to the actual shop and then finding out that they don't actually sell that particular product/item.
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"business goals always shape the company's use of technology, never vice versa" (McAfee, 2004). This portrays Inditex as being entirely business-led where organisational goals invariably define technological innovation. This ethos confirms their desire not to waste money on new systems which do not provide a business value or solution to a specific business problem. McAfee relates to this theory as an "inside-out approach". To sum up the arguments, Inditex has one principle which fully shows that their IT/IS environment is Traditional: "computerisation is standardised and targeted". You can see this on the low IT budget which is estimated 0.5% of revenue and the IT staff of 50.
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for schools, local council offices and other services as well as government regulations and policies. It also has message boards which can only be used by employees all though it is used as a buying and selling forum. There are a lot of restrictions on the network as well in the form that everyone has there own password for every piece of software that they use and they are restricted to the areas that they work in, an example of this is if he tried to get into an area that contained information about people enquiring about fostering and/or adoption
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The company would need laptops and mobile phones with wireless technology, as most of the work is on site thus Employees will be out of the office regularly, so having laptops that could receive information from a wireless internet is essential. A new technology WI-FI could satisfy this need. 3G mobile phones could be a good idea as they have video conferencing and a high-speed Internet connection. High-powered computers with 3D rendering software could be a good idea for 3D software could be used for designing houses obviously the company will need more computers for the new office.
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(Lieberman 21). The practice began with the development of India's technology universities and training infrastructure. The programming skills needed in software development are readily available in countries like India and China. A company can hire well-trained, professionally educated IT workers from India at a significant savings over hiring IT workers in the west (Lieberman 16). A technology worker costs some five times less in India than in America, which is the primary incentive to outsource work. The global availability of digital internet connections, combined with communications tools such as email, instant messaging, faxes, videoconferences, and cellular phones has empowered the foreign worker to provide services that do not necessarily require direct physical contact (Lieberman 15).
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* Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are further apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. * Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. * Metropolitan-area networks (MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. * Home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices In addition to these types, the following characteristic is also used to categorise different types of networks: Network Topologies John Wobus (1994)
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Produce a report for the Managing Director of Animal World Magazine outlining different ways of implementing a client-server Local Area Network (LAN) for the business.
The termination absorbs the electrical energy and stop reflections. Example A bus is being used by small business. Advantages o It's easy to add nodes in the bus network with repeater that boots the signal and allows it to travel a longer distance. o It's cheap because it needs less cable than star topology. o There is no single point failure in bus because there is no Hub. o It works well for small network Disadvantages o Entire network will stop communicating if there is a break in the backbone cable o Terminators are needed at the end of the backbone cable o Cant use it in large building
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Advantages of T1 Each T1 is equivalent to 24 separate circuits between two sites, an advantage for T1 because multiple lines and multiple-site networks are expensive and hard to manage. The end-user equipment at each site can be PBXs, videoconferencing systems, imaging systems, or host computers. T1s connecting two PBXs are called tie trunks. For some old PBXs that cannot directly receive a T1 signal, a T1 line must first be terminated at a channel bank. Analog lines are subject to noise and signal deterioration, and equipment that is used for reconstructing the analog signal cannot make them suitable for data transmission, because analog lines amplify both original signal and noise.
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This is the base fabric of the network. o Token Ring switching-Offers the same functionality as Ethernet switching but uses Token Ring technology. You can use a Token Ring switch as either a transparent bridge or source-route bridge. o Copper Data Distributed Interface (CDDI)-Provides a single-attachment station (SAS) or dual-attachment station (DAS) to two Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP), 100 Mbps RJ-45 connectors. o Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)-Provides an SAS or DAS connection to the FDDI backbone network using two multimode, media interface connector (MIC)
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In the computer centre all the computers are connected to a UPS and surge protection, in the form of sockets around the centre. The surge protection will stop computer components being damaged due to a spike on the national grid, and the UPS will take over if there is a power cut. The UPS can provide power to the servers in the computer centre for a considerable amount of time. The smaller servers all have a small UPS, and these are configured to shut the server down if the power is off for any longer than 10 minutes.
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TBG's are games that two or more players can play and they take turns such as Dinky b**b. SPG's are games such as chess against a computer etc. there forums are specially designed so that people can ask questions and get responses from other users; people in the NOC (Night Observation Centre) monitor this. Private messaging is a way for two players to communicate during a game they can talk about anything although it is monitored for abuse. This also allows you to have a buddy list but you have to sign up where you get a free 30-day trial and after that you start paying.
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located within close proximity of each other. This distance is generally limited to 2 kilometers. A MAN is a network that connects two or more LANs. It is basically a larger version of a LAN and it's distance is generally limited to 50 kilometers. An Air Force base network is considered a MAN. WANs link LANs or MANs by using long distance communication links leased or purchased from telecommunication companies without any distance limits. The Internet is a good example of a WAN. There are also Wireless networks, which are not constrained by wire and, therefore, can be used in places where it is difficult or impossible to install wire.
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Intrusions from the Unknown: Importance of Network Security in Today's Environment and Security Issues Associated with Networks.
If information is highly sensitive or essential for a business to operate hiring security guards may even be necessary to ensure that the physical framework of the network is not tempered with. Unintentional damage can also be caused by users normally lacking in basic knowledge of the workings of the network. Such an examples include data being accidentally deleted, clicking of dangerous e-mail attachments, accidentally giving away confidential information etc. Any network such as a LAN, WAN or WLAN has to transmit data, as this is one of the primary objectives of a network.
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Do we need changes/government control? Should governments have the right to access your data? Does the USA have too much control of Cyberspace? Advantages * It allows sharing of resources e.g. printer, modem and servers. * Sharing of information disk drives available to all users. * E-mail to be sent between users. * The connection of different types of computers, which can communicate with each other It is easier to * Set up new users and equipment * Store application programs on one computer and make this available to all users Disadvantages If Server fails then many users will be
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Public switched data network More commonly known as Switchstream or X-stream, this is one of four digital networks owned by British Telecom. The Switchstream is used for international communications because it uses a recognised standard regulated by CCITT. This network is a packet switching type, which means it splits each message into packages. Each package contains the message, the destination address, correct sequence the package should be assembled into, information identifying the source and finally the ability to detect and correct errors.
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Fibre optic cabling is used when the LAN may experience interference such as over a car park or public road. The advantages of using a LAN rather than having separate stand-alone computers in school are that: * There are no expensive telephone bills due to not using telecommunication lines to link the computers together. * Hardware devices such as printers and scanners are shared which saves a large amount of money.
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