Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century.
Emma Fields Social Policy and Criminology Examine the key features around the growth, development and policing of cyber crime in the 21st century. The internet was first created in the 1960’s, but it only really started to take off and develop in the last 20 years with big websites such as Google (1998) and YouTube (2005). With the internet developing and people knowing more about it, cybercrime then came about and since then it has grown and gotten more dangerous and more extreme. There are several different types of cybercrime for example one is called cyber violence, this includes stalking and harassment, it can also be bullying people online via social networking sites and chat rooms. Cyber obscenity is another type of cyber crime which is sexual including porn sites. Cyber trespass is the crime of hacking sites and cyber theft is also another cybercrime which is credit card fraud as well as the illegal downloading of movies, music, books etc. Computer hackers are very intelligent, initially they started hacking sites simply because they were able to, and they wanted to explore the sites, at the start it was done just for fun. However it didn’t take long for these hackers to realise their potential and what they could actually be doing, soon it then escalated and they became more educated and more confident in hacking. These hackers could now be described
William H. Gates.
William H. Gates Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Microsoft Corporation William (Bill) H. Gates III is co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer of Microsoft Corporation, the world's leading provider of software for personal computers. Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955. He and his two sisters grew up in Seattle. Their father, William H. Gates II, is a Seattle attorney. Mary Gates, their late mother, was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent and chairwoman of United Way International. Gates attended public elementary school before moving on to the private Lakeside School in North Seattle. It was at Lakeside that Gates began his career in personal computer software, programming computers at age 13. In 1973, Gates entered Harvard University as a freshman, where he lived down the hall from Steve Ballmer, who is now Microsoft's president. While at Harvard, Gates developed a version of the programming language BASIC for the first microcomputer - the MITS Altair. BASIC was first developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College in the mid-1960s. In his junior year, Gates dropped out of Harvard to devote his energies full-time to Microsoft, a company he had started in 1975 with his boyhood friend Paul Allen. Guided by a belief that the personal computer would be a valuable tool on every office desktop and in every home, they began
Legislation regulating E-Commerce
Data Protection Act 1998 This is the act that deals with the customer details that can be collected or stored on paper and electronically. In e-commerce when the user enters all the personal details such as name, address, telephone number, e-mail address and etc. According to this data protection act, the customer has a right to avoid from sending his/her details to a third party. Computer Misuse Act 1990 This act is a law that works against illegal activities such as: hacking, misuse software's or helping person to get access to someone else's computer. This act prosecutes hacking or attacking a computer with viruses. According to computer misuse act there are three new offences such as: * unauthorised access to computer programs or data * unauthorised access with the intent to commit further offences * unauthorised modification of computer material In an e-commerce website, Computer misuse act can be used to prevent the website getting hacked by hackers. For example when a user gets registered with an e-commerce website such as Amazon where you have to put all the details including the card details. So if someone hacks into the amazons account, he/she can order products and it will add to the customer's account. This can lead to unauthorised crimes. Consumer Credit Act 1974 This is another important act in e-commerce related to payments by the customers and
Give an overview of computer networks, describing some of the different kinds of network
Give an overview of computer networks, describing some of the different kinds of network? This report will focus on the following: • What computer networks are? • The common types of networks they are? • Identifying and describing the different types of networks. • Summing up the topic in conclusion. This technical report will not include the technicality of networks and it will only focuses on the common types of network topologies e.g. star, bus and ring. Computer network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together to share information and hardware. See below image. According to John Wobus (1994), the most common topology of networks includes the bus, star, and token ring topologies. Networks can also be characterised in terms of spatial distance as local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN), and wide area networks (WAN). There are five different types of networks, they are: * Local-area networks (LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). * Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are further apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. * Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. * Metropolitan-area networks (MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. * Home-area networks
Opportunities For IS Improvements - After the visit to the Recycling Consortium we managed to identify several opportunities for improvements in their Information Systems.
Opportunities For IS Improvements After the visit to the Recycling Consortium we managed to identify several opportunities for improvements in their Information Systems. ) Remote Access/Teleworking - Many of staff often conducted a lot of their work at home rather than in the office. This worked well as it saved on office space and it seems pointless going into the office to do the work when it can just as easily be done at home especially when some of the staff do not live in the nearer enough to the office to make it feasible for them to travel there on a daily basis. The problem is however that working from home meant it was difficult to get up to date copies of certain documents. Staff would find themselves coming into the office just to get a copy then go home to work on it. Sometimes emailing the documents would work for staff with Internet access in the home but this is not practical for larger files such as picture documents. Another problem was that even when the documents could be accessed at home with ease there is no knowing if someone else is also working on them. When this happens they end up with two copies of a document and would somehow have to put them together. The possible solutions to this problem are to set up a Remote Access Server (RAS) so the teleworkers can have access to the office network from home through a dial up server. Another solution is
Threats to Organisations and Systems. Describe the countermeasures available to an organisation that will reduce the risk of damage to information.
Section A - Task 1 and 2 Three types of threats to organisations Loss of revenue Natural disasters are a threat which most businesses face. This can happen at the spur of the moment, anywhere and anytime. Floods, earthquakes Loss of reputation Loss of reputation is one major threat that faces every company. A good business reputation is essential if a company or organisation is to do well and become a success. If a company losses reputation this may detract people such as users and business clients. Industrial Espionage This is when another company tries to look and steal at what other companies are doing , this is also know as competitive intelligence. This is usually done by someone applying for a rival company and then using their position there to give their company information about their rivals. This information can then be used for other companies gain such as stealing ideas. Task 2 - Impact on Teign & Tow because of industrial Espionage Other companies may want to get access to Teign & Tows data for things like future products they are planning on. Since Teign & Tow create and produce their own products which some of them are patented or patent pending. If rival companies were to get a hold of data from Teign & Tow about future products they may go about to make a similar product to rival theirs, this could cause a loss in revenue for Teign & Tow Ltd.
Reduce Damage to organisations
In order to prevent or minimize damage to a particular organisation, some security precautions need to be implemented and below I am going to name and explain how each of them work:- Stealing Intellectual Property Stealing intellectual property is basically when someone steals images from your website or other information and uses it on their own site without your permission. This is known as breaking the copyright law and works with logos as well and new ideas for new products as well. This can for example include; patents and trademarks as well as domain names. If a person is caught they can be given a significant amount of fine and eventually a prison sentence as well. The fine is £5000 for access and unlimited fine for modifying data. Denial Of Service Attack Denial of service attacks is basically when a particular person restricts access to a web page or network. It basically stops legitimate information to get through to the server and stop legitimate service to respond. This will make customers go to other websites and the company that has been attacked by this lose crucial customers and a significant amount of money as their website is not responding. This is done by a particular person sending lots of blank server request which overloads the server/system and it stops getting a request. Halting E-commerce Transactions If for instance a particular
Network Administration I have worked as a computer network administrator for over 5 years. I have worked mostly with networks in a mixed Microsoft Windows NT and Novell Netware environment. I am a Novell Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) and I am a certified Novell GroupWise Administrator. I have taken classes in configuration of Cisco routers. In this essay, I will discuss the definition of a network administrator, the tasks and responsibilities of a network administrator and share a day in the life of a network administrator. For documentation on my credentials, I am including my certification certificates. What is a Network Administrator? A network administrator is one who maintains and troubleshoots your computer systems. Depending on the size of your organization and the complexity of your technology, a network administrator's job can range from ten hours per week to full time. There are some obvious network administration tasks, such as installing or upgrading system software and managing user accounts and disks space, so you probably have some idea of what an administrator does. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is a consortium of telecommunications companies worldwide who have, among other things, defined a series of recommendations that describe how a telecommunications management network (TMN) should be operated. The ITU members
Computer crime can broadly be defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access
In this day and age, computer security means to provide confidentiality, integrity and prevention against misuse, accidents and malfunctions, with respect to both computer system and the type of information that it contains. The definitions that I have chosen are: "Computer Misuse Act 1990 "An Act to make provision for securing computer material against unauthorized access or modification; and for connected purposes". It states 3 offenses." [LexisNexis, 2008] Convention on Cybercrime: "The Convention is the first international treaty on crimes committed via the Internet and other computer networks, dealing particularly with infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud, child pornography and violations of network security. It also contains a series of powers and procedures such as the search of computer networks and interception." [Convention on Cybercrime 2008] Computer crime can broadly be defined as criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access "Under the Convention, damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data without right comprises the 'data interference' offense which can be limited to conduct resulting in serious harm." [LexisNexis, 2008] The three definitions used, for explaining the term computer misuse are quite different from each other. All the definitions covers the whole
Standard ways of Working - Anti-virus software
Standard ways of Working - Anti-virus software Anti-virus is a must have on any machine weather it is on a home machine or in a company. There are an endless amount of anti-virus programs on the market today most of which are very good at the job they were designed for. Anti-virus software when installed will do a number of jobs: * The software will scan CD's, floppy disks and DVD's when they are first put into the there drives. * The software will scan emails and their attachments to make sure a virus is not embedded on the base program of the email. * Once a month the software will log onto its homepage and download information on new viruses so that it will detect them if they are present in your machine. These are the main steps when setting up a scheduled virus scan: * When you have went into control panel select scheduled tasks. In this window select Add Scheduled task. The next window will ask you what you would like to schedule select virus scan. The next window will ask you how often you want the scan to be done. Choose Weekly. The next window will be what time you wish the scan to be done at. Choose a time when the computer will not be in use this allows the scan to be carried out quicker and will stop it interrupting the user. The final screen shows that the scan has been set up correctly and at what time and date it will be carried out. Eoin McHenry