What is communication?
What is communication?
Communication is sending a massage and ensuring that it has been received. The sender has a message that he wants people to know about. This might be:
- Information i.e. facts that sender wants the receiver too no
- An attitude e.g. “I do not approve of that.”
- An emotion e.g. “I am very happy.”
The media is the way in which the message is sent.
The receiver is the person or people the message is intended for. The receiver can want to receive the message, be indifferent to it or be hostile to it.
The receiver lets the sender know the message has been received and how it has been received. This is called feedback.
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If the receiver is satisfied with the feedback the message ends. If the sender is not satisfied with feedback then the message is likely to be repeated – perhaps in a different way.
methods of communication
Written – the use of the written work and numbers in memos, reports, the agenda and minutes of meetings, letters telex and fax.
Oral – use of the spoken work in conversation, giving instructions, meetings, tape recorders, radio, tannoy systems, telephone.
Visual – posters, advertisements, charts graphs, computer graphics, and television.
Electronic – radio, television, cassette recorders, telex, fax and computer networks
Non-verbal – facial expression, use of the body
Written communication can use words, and figures or a combination of both.
- Written communication has the advantage that there is a written copy that later can be referred to if there is a dispute. Unless it is lost, stolen or destroyed, a written record can be used to check on what was said which could help to resolve disputes.
- Written records provide
- A permanent record of instructions given or decisions reached
- An opportunity to give detailed instructions
- The ability to reach a large number of people.
- Be lost, destroyed or stolen
- Be ignored
- Give no chance for the receiver to ask for an explanation
EXAMPLES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
Instruction manuals Notice boards Reports
Circulars Newsletters Forms
This is communicating using the spoken word and includes meetings, face-to-face, for example in giving instructions, interviews and telephone conversations. They can be vertical or horizontal depending on the positions of the people concerned.
- The receiver can question any point that is not clear
- The sender gets instant feedback
Not all methods of oral communication have these advantages. A tannoy system can give messages but there is no opportunity for instant feedback. A manager addressing a large number of people in his department could find people reluctant to ask questions because of the size of the meeting.
- No written record. This can lead to misunderstandings going uncorrected and disputes over who said or did not say what.
- If the same message is passed through a large number of people it can get distorted. It only needs each person to change the message slightly for it to become nonsense.
- Photographs, diagrams, videos, and the layout of documents and notice boards are all used to convey information. Visual communication attracts people’s attention, gives impact to the information and by simplifying it makes it easier t understand. Advertising is a good example of how a business uses a picture to communicate with potential customers. Graphs can be used to make figures easier to understand.