Assignment 1.1 By Roxanne Slevin ) The main piece of legislation regulating police powers is the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE). The act was passed due to the miscarriage of justice in 1980, when a man (Maxwell Confait) was murdered. He had been strangled to death with an electrical flex in a burning house. Three boys at the age of fourteen, fifteen and eighteen were charged with the murder; however, three years later they were released after the Fisher report concluded they had nothing to with the murder. In the case of Jack, there are many things to consider about the legality of the actions of the police. Code A Under section 1 of PACE, the police officer was legally allowed to search Jack as there was a reasonable suspicion; this was due to the fact that the patrol officer was looking for suspects that were vandalising bus shelters, and where jack was acting suspiciously this is therefore reasonable. On the other hand, if it had been on the basis of personal factors, this would have been seen as discrimination and therefore, would have been illegal. Before the search begun, the police officer would have had to indentify himself and the police station of where he/she is based and tell the person to be searched the grounds for the search. Plus, If the police officer is not in uniform, then the officer must provide documentary identification, under
Elements of the law of contract Zone A examination paper Question 1 "The requirement of consideration is an unnecessary complication in the formation of contracts." Consideration is probably regarded as one of the most controversial issues in the law of contract. The traditional and/or orthodox doctrine is based on the principle of "reciprocity", which seems to suggest that a promise given should be exchanged for something in return. The requirement of Consideration was established since the sixteenth century in Common Law. The first mention of which had been in the form of quid pro quo, inter alia, a promise for a promise, and later, it was acceptable that even a detriment or forbearance like fulfilling the promise to marry such as in the case of Shadwell v Shadwell would be sufficient consideration. Consideration was first associated with debt such as in the Pinnel's case and had subsequently spread to other simple contracts. This has been criticized by Lord Mansfield in 1756, and was in view that it could only be treated as evidence of the parties' intention and held that a moral obligation should be sufficient consideration. It was only in the case of Eastwood v Kenyon that Lord Denman confirmed that the law required some factor additional to a defendant's promise, which is, consideration, whereby the promise becomes legally binding. So, if a
Acceptance Acceptance of an offer means unconditional agreement to all the terms of that offer. Acceptance will often be oral or in writing, but in some cases an offeree may accept an offer by doing something, such as delivering goods in response to an offer to buy. The Courts will only interpret conduct as indicating acceptance if it seems reasonable to infer that the offeree acted with the intention of accepting the offer. CASE: Brogden v Metropolian Rail Co (1877) Remaining silent cannot amount to acceptance, unless it is absolutely clear that acceptance was intended. CASE: Felthouse v Bindley (1862) Re Selectmove Ltd (1995) - The Court of Appeal pointed out that an acceptance by silence could be sufficient if it was the offeree who suggested that their silence would be sufficient. Thus in Felthouse, if the nephew had been the one to say that if his uncle heard nothing more he could treat the offer as accepted, there would have been a contract. Unilateral contracts are usually accepted by conduct. If I offer £100 to anyone who finds my lost dog, finding the dog will be acceptance of the offer, making my promise binding - it is not necessary for anyone to contact me and say that they intend to take up my offer and find the dog. Acceptance must be unconditional An acceptance must accept the precise terms of an offer. CASE: Tim v Hoffman (1873) - one party
In this Assignment I am going to describe the requirements of a valid contract and also describe how statutes affect contractual terms.
BTEC National Diploma in Business Aspect of Contract and Business Law Introduction: In this Assignment I am going to describe the requirements of a valid contract and also describe how statutes affect contractual terms. Task 1.1 (p1) In this first task I will be explaining the requirements to create a valid contract and I will also point out the differences between an offer and an invitation to treat. A contract is an oral or written agreement between people. A contract is made in order to know your rights so that you cannot breach it, which means a contract binds the parties together so that no one can breach the agreement in future. A contract is an agreement between two or more parties who intend to be bounded by law. A valid contract has to consist the following: * A valid offer * A valid Acceptance * A valid Consideration * Intention * Capacity * Legality Offer This is the first stage of a contract, this is when the offeror the person who makes the offer, states an interest to enter an agreement, if the offer that the offeror sets is accepted by the other party (the offeree). An offer is a proposal, promise or other manifestation of willingness to make and fulfil a contract. However and offer from the offeror could also be terminated if the offeree does not accept the terms of the agreement. There are certain rules relating to what a valid offer is one of
Contract Law Offer And Acceptance Contract Unilateral - Bilateral Contract Subjective-Objective Approach To An Agreement Offer Invitation To Treat Counter-offer Revocation Of Offer, Recall of Acceptance Acceptance Postal Rule-Limitation Contract Definition * Is an agreement between two or more parties that is intended to be legally binding (enforceable agreement) * Legally binding agreement needs of offer, acceptance, intention to create legal relations and consideration(difference between social agreement and legal agreement) * Is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides remedies * The remedies for the breach of contract is an award of monetary compensation, injunction, & specific performance(quantum meruit) Essential Element * The promise or promises may be express (either writing or oral) or may be implied from circumstances * Needs of writing is not essential for contract the Courts of US approved that as long as there is meeting of minds as though there is written, formal, signed contract then contract exists * However, for certain type of contract signed writing contract is needed (Statute of Fraud) * Mass production and nationalisation have led to the standard form contract * Freedom of contract is modified by some acts such as Consumer Credit Act 1974 & Unfair Contract Act
Billy Joel Business Ethics and Law Case Study. In the above case scenario, the oral contract that was made between the seller and the buyer are not binding in the court of law in accordance to the contract law.
Business Ethics & Law Case Study Case Study Billy Joel decided he wanted to learn to play the violin for his next set of concerts. He called a violin salesman in New York and asked if he had any for sale. The salesman stated he had a Stradivarius and a Guarnerius (two famous brands of violins) and offered to sell them to Billy for $80,000 and $24,000, respectively. Billy agreed, over the phone, to purchase the violins from the salesman and told him he would be in town the next week to pick them up. Billy didn't show up for two months, and when he entered the store, the salesman wasn't there. His wife, Margaret, was there in the store, however, and she had full knowledge of the deal cut between her husband and Billy. (She'd heard her husband whining, complaining, and wailing about Billy not showing up for the last 2 months - and she was really sick of hearing about it.) Billy asked to see the violins, and Margaret showed him both of them. Billy stated he would agree to pay $65,000 for both of them, and Margaret, knowing that they were counterfeits and only worth $2,000 AND realizing that their house was about to go into foreclosure, agreed to the reduction in price and sold Billy the two violins for $65,000. She gave him a bill of sale that she wrote out on a note pad on the counter, which said, "Paid in full. Strativarus and Granruius violans. $65,000. Chk # 4301 Billy
Using relevant case law explain why the distinction between an invitation to treat and an offer is important in Contract law.
Using relevant case law explain why the distinction between an invitation to treat and an offer is important in Contract law. An 'invitation to treat' is inviting parties to create a contract. It represents the preliminary stage of negotiation. A person making an invitation to treat does not intend to be bound as soon as it is accepted by the person to whom the statement is addressed. An invitation to treat is always a fixed price and a choice; it is not an offer to sell. Newspapers and catalogues are examples of invitations to treat. An 'offer' is defined as a statement of willingness where the person who is making the offer (offeror), promises to be bound in a contract if the terms of the offer are accepted by the person accepting the offer (offeree). An individual or organisation can make an offer to another individual (bilateral) another company or to anyone in the world (unilateral). An offer can be "express"- for example if A tells B he will sell his radio for £30. An offer can also be "implied" from conduct - for example when A brings goods to the supermarket cash desk. It is tough to differentiate between an invitation to treat and an offer as it depends on the intention of the party making an invitation to treat which is shown in Pharmaceutical Society of GB v Boots Cash Chemists Ltd  1 QB 401, where the defendants changed the format of their shop
IN THE COURT OF APPEAL (CIVIL DEVISION) BETWEEN: ERIC POLLARD (APPELLANT) -AND- VIV WINDSOR (RESPONDENT) WRITTEN ARGUMENT - SENIOR RESPONDENT; ISI BACKGROUND Viv Windsor bought a local shop and a computer, Anxious to please the locals, put an advert in the local news paper on a Saturday, stating that she would sell luxury chocolate shortbread for £2.50 instead of the recommended retail price of £5. She also stated that anyone wanting the shortbread should email her or come to the shop. Eric pollard, the appellant saw the email at 4.30pm on Saturday and sent her email on the same day. She realised that evening that she was making lose so she decided to revoke the advert. She contacted the newspaper who published her revocation 9.am the next morning. The paper got delivered to Eric at 10.30am Viv checked her email at 10.35am, She replied stating that the discount was no longer available. Eric sued her for breach of contract. A GROUND OF APPEAL There was no contract between Viv and Eric since the notice in the paper was not an offer but an invitation to treat. ARGUEMENT A contract by definition is an agreement between two parties by which both parties are bound by the law and which can therefore be enforced in a court or other equivalent forum. The law of contract has been known to