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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss how modern technology aids an athlete's preparation for competition

    5 star(s)

    However, it can be argued that these cameras shouldn't be used as they can be dangerous; in the 2004 Olympics, Sarah Price badly hurt her leg due to getting it caught on an underwater camera during warm up. Furthermore, there are also issues with grants given. Many small swimming clubs would be unable to afford to buy the underwater cameras, because they are very expensive - this would mean more government money has to go into buying this equipment. Many people argue that this money could go to better use.

    • Word count: 1078
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe arousal, anxiety and stress including their causes. Explain effects on performance.

    4 star(s)

    For example, the arousal levels in a Rugby team training session are likely to be higher because it requires persistence and perseverance. A training session is a low cognitive task, therefore arousal levels are going to be higher, and are likely to be more beneficial to long term performance. Performers become more intrinsically motivated and self-directed, as at training they are much more eager to learn and improve. Whereas, a Golfer (putting) which is a high cognitive task, is likely to initiate lower arousal levels - where concentration is at its highest and decision making is essential; so, as a

    • Word count: 1986
  3. Skills, techniques and tactics in futsal and basketball.

    * Shooting is key in Futsal as it kicking the ball to score in the opposing team's goal. This is done by the player using a lot of power most times to take a shot at the opponent's goal. * Creating space is essential in Futsal because when players create space away from where the ball is currently place there is a more likely chance you will get it and have a chance in taking the ball further down the court. * Passing in basketball is when you have the ball and pass it to one of the players on your team.

    • Word count: 1558
  4. Analyse the roles and responsibilities of coaches.

    Being able to arrange matches, tournaments maybe even trips away. Knowing how to treat individuals maybe there's a 'Messer' on the team showing the discipline and patience to control him and discipline him if necessary, this is important because if you let that one player mess around the rest of the team will think they can. Friend: A manager will have to have a good relationship with his players if he wants to be successful in developing his players. A good relationship with all the players will create a better team atmosphere and spirit.

    • Word count: 1400
  5. Group performance and Cohesion

    Therefore a tennis doubles pair will be more likely to be closer to their potential productivity than a large team such as a full rugby squad. This is because the larger amount of people there are, the more communication is needed between the individuals. The research into this study was based on tug of war; a group of people were tested individually for their "pulling ability", then all theses scores were added together. So with the entire group pulling the rope at the same time one might think that they would achieve the same results as the collective individual performances,

    • Word count: 1030
  6. BTEC Sport 6 week training program

    However to be training for months or even up to a year are mesocycles. Some people though opt for a macrocycle which can last between 1 to 4 years. Short term goals suit microcycles, medium term goals suit mesocycles and long term are for macrocycles. Week 1 Monday First of all you need to test and analyse your speed with a recognised test like a 50m sprint. Do this three times and then record your best time. Make sure you stretch all your muscles and especially in your legs before and after. Take the rest of the day off and prepare for a hard day tomorrow!

    • Word count: 1961
  7. Achieving Peak Performance - the role of other professionals. Nutritionist,Physiotherapist/Doctor,Psychologist, Coaches and Manager.

    An example of a nutritionist and the jobs she has to do is Pamela Paul, who is the official dietician of Falkirk FC. She ensures that all players at the club are aware of the type of foods they should be eating on a daily basis. Her daily role at the club includes individually assessing the player nutritional status and intake, advice on their individual nutritional needs and requirements the changes that they will need to make in their food and drink.

    • Word count: 1614
  8. Learning theories in sport

    could become conditioned to an external stimulus (bell) hereby creating a conditioned reflex/response. B. F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) Operant Conditioning - operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior.

    • Word count: 1792
  9. Skills, Techniques and Tactics for 5 a side Football and Basketball.

    Passing (long pass)- When making a long pass it is similar to shooting because you have to use power. When making a long pass you should plant your non passing foot to the side of the ball and then kick the ball with the other foot. One of the best players in the world at picking out a pass is Cesc Fabregas. Control- When controlling the ball you have very soft feet and should try and cushion the ball. When the ball is going towards you it is very important to keep your eye on the ball incase it bobbles off the floor then you will need to reshape your body so you can control the ball.

    • Word count: 1834
  10. Collect information to prepare to coach

    within the muscle structure * Neuogenic - changes to the connection between muscle and nerve Why: core strength is crucial to a player who seeks to avoid tackles and deliver power where it is most needed depending on the threat being faced by the player at any one point in the game. To improve strength requirements of a top rugby player, set out a range of drills designed to develop this specific skill. A Speed Distance travelled per unit time across the ground or apparatus. It can also be the speed of the technique such as a conversion in rugby.

    • Word count: 1536
  11. Using Sport Psychology to Help my Performance in Volleyball.

    Therefore this type of goal is inaccurate and should not be the main goal. However as part of the program 2 outcome goals had to be selected. For this program the two outcome goals selected were, to achieve a VHA in volleyball and to gain a sense of fluency when playing the game of volleyball. Performance goals are targets that are directed toward achieving individual skills or behaviours, and tend to be the most effective type of goal because they involve "learning at the risk of making mistakes, they improve problem-solving, and they encourage the athlete to work harder" (Dr.

    • Word count: 1466
  12. Choose three different target groups of sports participants. Describe and explain (P2, M2) barriers they would encounter on the sports continuum. Analyse (D1) the barriers to participation, providing effective and realistic solutions

    women's life Transport There aren't many women's teams around therefore there aren't as many local team for women as there are for men. This means they have to travel further to play the sport the wish to. This means they need to find more time and extra money to travel to the required places. Media The media don't often give sports women much attention. National newspapers are usually based on men's football and rugby teams putting women out of the spotlight.

    • Word count: 1264
  13. Barriers Affecting Disabled People in Sport

    Amongst the results, Sport England discovered that just over 50% of the disabled population had taken part in any kind of sporting activity in the last month before the survey. This is 24% less than non-disabled people. Looking at the experiences of disabled people who take part in sport, the study found that: Of those disabled adults who participated in sport in the 12 months before the survey, 65% would like to play more. Also a negative experience in sport due to their health problem or disability was reported by 14% of disabled adults.

    • Word count: 1214
  14. Barriers Affecting Ethnic Minorities in Sport

    Also this may be due to the lack of educational opportunity and aspiration for ethnic minorities. Identifying the Barriers There are many different barriers that people of an ethnic minority face. These include assumptions made about Black and Ethnic minority people, for example that all Asian girls aren't allowed to wear swimsuits. This can limit their opportunities to take up sport. Also they may not be able to use mixed sex facilities, meaning they may not be able to take part in many activities at local gyms or leisure centres. It could be argued that Muslim women are a minority within a minority, the world of sport is widely a male dominated sport and there are changing issues about the visibility of Muslim women in sport.

    • Word count: 1256
  15. Psychological Factors

    Steven Gerrard plays football because he enjoys it, he once said that if he wasn't a professional, he would be playing for a men's team on a Sunday and playing when ever he can. * Extrinsic Extrinsic is to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as medals or money. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good

    • Word count: 1778
  16. Lifestyle Factors

    It obviously isn't as easy as it looks to give up alcohol but there are ways in which you and lower the amount of alcohol you drink, for example drink only once or twice a week instead of 4 times a week. If it's harder than you thought to completely quit drinking, perhaps you could find ways to control the amount you drink. When you go out make sure you know how much you drink and set your self restrictions.

    • Word count: 1498
  17. Sports leadership evaluation - In this assignment I am going to look at my 6 hockey sessions, I will be looking at the sessions so I can asses myself on sports leadership and to look at ways of how I can improve.

    Health and safety issues include checking the courts for slippery and dangerous objects as well as checking the participants for correct kit such as trainers and shin pads and checking for any jewellery they may have left on. The main aims of my sessions were to promote participation and enjoyment. Throughout my evaluation I am going to be looking at if I have achieved these aims as well as looking at my sport leadership skills. To become a good leader you need to have specific qualities to become a good leader you need to be able to interact with people, work as part of a team but also be able to think on your feet to get participants motivated.

    • Word count: 1739
  18. Describe and explain energy intake and expenditure in sports performance P3, M1

    A swimmer will need to consume 12-15% of protein in their diet. The longest swimming takes less than 15 minutes to complete so you're body will be mostly using carbohydrates. A swimmers body composition should be in-between mesomorph and endomorph. Body composition is used to classify an individual's body shape and size. There are three body types, even though an individual will not fit in the body type perfectly it is still a excellent method. The three body composition is ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph. The reason swimmers fall in-between mesomorph and endomorph is because the swimmer doesn't need to have an excess of muscle, or else it will counter the stroke pattern and will mess up.

    • Word count: 1997
  19. Describe and explain the components of a balanced diet P6, M4

    Protein - essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Protein are complex molecules, the body takes longer to break them down. As a result, they are a much slower and longer lasting source of energy than carbohydrates. Protein is found in dairy products such as eggs and meats. The normal protein requirements are 0.75g per kilogram of body weight per day for a female it will be 45g and 55.5g per day for a male. For athletes the intake should be 1.2-1.7g per kilogram body weight per day.

    • Word count: 1801
  20. Tatical analysis - Tactics are extremely important in a game of Netball as they help to score goals and consequently win the game.

    The success of all centre passes should be noted and teams should readjust their tactics to improve their performance from these notes. All players who intend to receive the centre pass must run forward into the centre demonstrating effective movement skills and using strong and efficient footwork to receive the ball successfully at speed. The player receiving the first pass should turn fully to locate the strait line options, if there are no strait line options, this player will rely on the square pass to the player moving on the overlap run.

    • Word count: 1353
  21. Describe 3 Different Occupations within the Sports Industry

    the problem is than the Doctor can use torso's or images to explain and make it clear for the patient. * Have patience, be helpful, careful, confident, understanding and trustful; A patient can be very panicked or shocked when the problem or cause of its illness is discovered, therefore the Doctor needs to have patience and to tell the patient that everything is going to be alright, and nothing worse is going to happen. The Doctor needs to understand the problems, and encourage the patients.

    • Word count: 1502
  22. Free essay

    Compare and contrast the physical fitness requirements and skill related fitness requirements

    Different lengths will require a different endurance for example, 1500m will require more than an 800m race. In netball aerobic endurance is important so the player can perform to the best of their ability throughout the whole of the game. Although netball players do get 3 short breaks as the match is split up into four 15 minute quarters, they also get short breaks throughout the game whilst the ball is at the other end of the court. The netball player can use this time as recovery time. Middle distance runners need more aerobic endurance as they don't get any breaks at all and need to keep a good pace to do well and finish their race.

    • Word count: 1433
  23. Discuss the role of feedback for learning skills for individual, racket and team sports

    Positive and negative refer to what kind of feedback is given. Positive is focusing on what you did well in the task, whereas negative is focusing on what wasn't as good and what you need to improve. Terminal and concurrent feedback are when the feedback is given; terminal being when the feedback is given after the performance, and concurrent is during the performance. All of these methods of feedback have both advantages and disadvantages. It is important to change the type of feedback you give or receive depending on the type of sport.

    • Word count: 1254
  24. Local and National Provision

    Football Foundation's aims are to "provide more schools, clubs and parks with more modern football facilities" (www.footballfoundation.org.uk) and to make football a part of the community. An important body which is involved in football is the Independent Football Commission (IFC). They "work closely with fans, clubs and the football authorities, to make sure that the needs of the football community are being met" (www.theifc.co.uk). They do this by making unannounced visits to football clubs to make sure that they are doing what they should be. They check on things such as child protection, disabled football and football in the community.

    • Word count: 1208

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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