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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Analyse the nature of a skilled performer

    He is also using perceptual skill by being aware of his surroundings e.g the positioning of the goalkeeper is he of his line? Too far to the left or the right?, the best place to place the ball, is the ball set up for a shot, will the shot be blocked?. In this picture kaka is also using motor skills ,he is running and about to strike the ball he is controlling his muscles in a coordinated way to continue running and strike the ball in the same stride pattern Cognitive Skills: Skill which involves the mental/intellectual ability of the performer e.g what tactics do you use?

    • Word count: 2019
  2. Motivation plays a key role in the learning of skills, because the performer has set himself/herself goals to achieve and that is his/her motivation to succeed. Motivation is also a key essential in a learners preference and selection of activities.

    According to the Drive Theory (Clark Hull 1943) if an athlete is appropriately skilled then it will help them to perform well if their drive to compete is aroused - they are "psyched up". www.brianmac.com Drive Theory It was believed that if you are asked to do something in front of a crowd that you would do it worse than you would on your own To help solve this problem, Robert Zajonc put forward Drive Theory where he used the term dominant response to refer to the behaviour we are most likely to perform in a given situation.

    • Word count: 2109
  3. Different Types of Learning. Everyone has there own way of learning people might have the same way of learning but some might learn skills quicker than others, some people might learn the skill verbally when it is explained to them and they pick it up rig

    Here are a few definitions of learning: B.Knapp defines learning as "the more or less permanent change in behaviour that is reflected in a change in performance" Mike Mines defines learning as " an observable and measurable change in behaviour that is the result of an experience" As a co. P.E coach of a year 9 class I like to assess weather or not the skills that we have worked on have been learned and improved by the performers, there are a few ways of finding out if they have been learned or not.

    • Word count: 2008
  4. British Army Fitnes Tests

    In addition to this a candidate must fall within specific body fat standards. The following targets and pass rates are based on the scenario that the participant is male. During the sit-up test one must perform full sit ups, with a spotter holding down the feet of the performer. The pass rate is fifty-four sit-ups in two minutes. Having a strong core and mid-section and carrying strength in the abdominal muscles and lower back muscles is integral for lifting heavy equipment. This is especially so for Royal Engineers who require exceptional all-round strength and stamina.

    • Word count: 2205
  5. Psychology for Sports Performance - task1 - How personality affects sports performance.

    In sport, type A individuals are more likely than type B people to continue participating in a sporting setting when the situation becomes unfavorable or when they are not particularly motivated to take part. Personality theories There are different types of personality theories they are: Trait, social learning, situational approach and interactional approach. Trait theory - This personality is based on the assumption that a person's personality can be captured in a series of different oppositions. A trait is what we also call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives feels, believes, or acts.

    • Word count: 2337
  6. Physical Education-Javelin

    improve performance in this event and allow an athlete to throw the javelin further, the athlete must train to achieve the maximum initial velocity they can physically create.[5] To do so, it is important to have a fitness training program specifically designed to target the muscle groups and fibres commonly used in javelin. These muscle groups include the shoulders, pectorals, triceps, abdominal, and wrist muscles.[2] The athlete then trains to increase their capacity of maximum strength for each of these muscle groups, later training to reach their maximum strength as quickly as possible by developing fast-twitch muscle fibres (Type IIB)

    • Word count: 2020
  7. Sport Science - Sport Psychology Task 3

    Distress Distress is the negative stress that performers often try to avoid. In many sports distress is bound to be caused by the opponent due to the competitive nature of the sport. It can therefore be said that poor performance can be the direct result of distress. The sporting environment can cause distress to a player which can lead to unintentional failure. A good example of this is baseball; the pitcher will pitch the ball in way that will cause the batter distress, as it is his prerogative to do so. This distress can lead to a foul swing and a negative performance.

    • Word count: 2512
  8. Types of Learning and how they apply to developing football skills.

    The athlete will remember competitive moments were he/she has carried out a skill that has been successful; they will then remember that skill and try to include it in the next situation, the athlete will do this many times with their experience the skill will gradually progress. Attitudinal: Attitudinal learning is using your own conscience when faced with choices. Not one person on this earth will have the same thoughts, personality and confidence so each persons choices will be for their own specific reason.

    • Word count: 2359
  9. Sports Analysis (cricket)

    It is important for the bowler to know exactly how long his or her run-up is because it needs to terminate at the popping crease. If the bowler steps over this, he or she will have bowled a no ball. Fast Bowlers rely on speed to get a batsman out. This type of bowler can be further classified according to the speed at which they bowl the ball on average. Most pace bowlers are medium-fast to fast in top level cricket.

    • Word count: 2010
  10. Tactical analysis in preparation for performance (Football)

    In its prime basics, football contains two teams existing of 11 players. It lasts for a maximum of 90 minutes with two halves of 45 minutes each way. The aim of the game is to score against the opposition team in the goals which are defended by the opposition. A goal is scored when the ball completely crosses the goal line. A basic layout of a football pitch can be seen above. A team is allowed to substitute (switch) a maximum of three players throughout the game. These substitutes can be selected from a group of 5-7 players.

    • Word count: 2300
  11. Free essay

    Practical Sports Study (Individual) log Book for Badminton

    decide, they cover their eyes and it means unsighted meaning the point has to be replayed back (diagram and instruction are shown on appendix 1). Services Judge - has to sit on a chair by the post, preferably opposite the umpire and their role is to judge is the server delivers a correct service, if not, call "FAULT" loudly and then they use the approval hand signal (diagram and instruction are shown on appendix 1). Umpire - their roles are to look around and listen to any calls from the line judge and call out the player(s)

    • Word count: 2428
  12. Dietary Guidlines

    Also helps with weight control, although if you have too much then you could gain weight. Bran Flakes is a simple and wholesome way to help improve the health of your digestive system. Cereal - Ready Brek with a Yogurt. This contains protein; it is not to heavy or light, perfect to start off the day. Also helps with weight control. Also a yogurt is good because it has some fruit in it and it tastes good. It is a great way to boost your energy levels. It's packed full of delicious and nutritious finely milled oats which will make it perfect for any player, young players especially.

    • Word count: 2032
  13. Analysis in Football

    If you want to improve your tackling skills, you should work on your physical strength, anticipation, balance and mobility. Another strength of Kane's is heading. Heading is a discrete skill, this means you can clearly see a beginning and end. When he headers the ball he uses the upper part of his forehead. This part of the skull will not injure or hurt, because it is comprised of only skin and thick bone. He also makes sure that he keeps his eye on the part of the ball that he wants to head, and his eye on the ball itself as he can see where it will land so that he can attack it rather than letting it his head.

    • Word count: 2133
  14. Sports leadership. In this unit of work I am going to look at what a sports leader is and what they do.

    An example is leading a netball catching session and one child can't catch well. You should put your self into their shoes and to consider how they are feeling and to ensure you don't upset them or embarrass them. Explaining and going through the skills step by step with the child encouraging them throughout will give the child confidence and help them achieve what they want to. Confidence is a characteristic of an effective sports leader. Confidence is feeling comfortable in the activity you are carrying out putting in maximum effort to engage all participants.

    • Word count: 2721
  15. A balanced diet for children

    Nutrients: Chemical substances found in food that are needed by the body in order for it to stay healthy. 3. Variety of interesting dishes: A number of different types of dishes in the same category that is able to amused and attract the children. 4. Children in a day nursery: Children aging from 3-6 years old in a nursery for the care of small children during the day. The chosen words and phrases are important because it elaborates more behind the question itself.

    • Word count: 2168
  16. A balanced diet

    From the bloodstream it can be used immediately as energy or stored in the liver and in the muscles. A minimum recommended daily intake of at least 50 percent of the total kilocalories consumed should come from complex carbohydrate sources. The British Nutrition Foundation found that in Britain the average intake of carbohydrate is 272g for men and 193g for women, which provides just over 43 percent of their diet. As with most nutrients, eating excess amounts can lead to problems. Excessive consumption of sugar can lead to tooth decay and is linked to a number of major diseases e.g.

    • Word count: 2180
  17. factors affecting performance

    take place, positive feedback concerning the position of the feet allows continual advances in skill level as the athlete will no longer change that precise aspect of the skill which is given the praise and consequently focuses on the positioning of the hands. Eventually the athlete will receive positive feedback in all technical aspects of the skill and continue to practice the correct method, significantly improving their hockey performance. Negative feedback is another example of feedback that is "used to inform the athlete as to what was incorrect about the movement.

    • Word count: 2576
  18. Fitness & Training

    Weight training uses a variety of specialized equipment to target specific muscle groups and types of movement'.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight_training) Weight training is a form of training that uses progressive resistance, either in the form of actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted. We weight train at college to: * Increase muscular strength. * Increase speed. * Increase muscular endurance. * Develop/increase muscle bulk or size. * Rehabilitate after illness or injury. The benefits of weight training with playing rugby are huge. Some of these benefits include injury prevention, enhanced speed, coordination, power, and improved self-confidence.

    • Word count: 2094
  19. Analysis of Performance

    How many subs are allowed? - Usually 5 subs on the bench, with a maximum of 3 allowed to be subbed onto the pitch during a game. What special kit should be worn in addition to relevant team kits? - All players must wear appropriate kit, i.e. shin guards for protection and football boots for grip on grass. What is a foul? Violating accepted standards or rules, usually in the form of challenging an opponent unfairly in attempt to get the ball, or sometimes just too unfairly challenge the opponent.

    • Word count: 2963
  20. In this piece of coursework I will be looking at the role of motivation and its effects on sporting performance. Motivation means the driving force which makes us want to do something.

    (http://allpsych.com/dictionary/dictionary2.html) Intrinsic motivation is by internal factors such as enjoyment and beating our personal best. An example of intrinsic is when playing football in the park for enjoyment. Figure 2 - an example of intrinsic motivation is Kids playing football in the park. Intrinsic motivation has been define as: "The motivation or desire to do something based on the enjoyment of the behaviour itself rather than relying on or requiring external reinforcement." http://allpsych.com/dictionary/dictionary2.html Table 1 - shows the differences between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic Take part for money For enjoyment Win rewards Beat personal records Win cup and trophies To keep fit Participation for Fame To perform well To socialise Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic I feel that there is a relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

    • Word count: 2256
  21. Edexcel AS PE - Skill Acquisition 1 - Skill, Ability, Technique

    Examples of abilities would be: speed in basketball, strength in shot putt and hand - eye co-ordination in squash. Now to answer: what is technique? It is the way a skill is performed; we have standard technique models for most skills in sport which allow one to practice until perfection is reached. Skill can be represented by this equation. SKILL = TECHNIQUE + ABILITY We cannot train or aim to improve ability very much, so we must concentrate on technique to improve the overall skill. I have chosen the following sports and skills: 1. Basketball. Skill: lay-up. 2. Athletics.

    • Word count: 2775
  22. Motion in Sports

    as the distance increases the decreases. This is because a marathon runner could not sprint for 2 hours as sprinting is a short burst of speed lasting between 9- 10 seconds. Therefore the longer the event the more the athlete needs to pace themselves in order to avoid fatigue during the race. 2c) from the results table above the average speeds show that men are slightly faster than women. However as the distance increases women are getting closer to the men's results. 3. When the player hits the ball he accelerates however when he starts to see that the ball is being fielded he starts to decelerate and reaches 2nd base 4.

    • Word count: 2165
  23. Analysis of an alite performer

    If you want to play the ball up field or pass the ball across field to stretch the play you would play a long ball. If you are keen to keep possession and play tidy neat football a short pass would often be the answer. An example of a good long passer is Steven Gerrard. His ability to read the game is one of the best in the world and he can pick a player out to the inch from the opposite side of the field.

    • Word count: 2313
  24. Unit 2: Skill Acquisition Task 1- Discuss the differences between skill, ability and technique and explain how you would structure the practises to enhance these components of fitness

    Athletes use their skills to achieve objectives. For example, running 10 seconds in a 100metre race. Skill is acquired and therefore has to be learned. A number of key qualities are needed in order for a performance to be skilful. These are consistency, accuracy, control, intention and fluidity. There are different types of skills an athlete requires when performing their particular sport. These are Cognitive, Perceptual, and Motor skills. Cognitive skills are often known as intellectual skills that involve thought processes.

    • Word count: 2241
  25. Elite Performer 3

    6 - * Anaerobic session * Nutritional analysis Heart rate monitor Nutritional analysis 10.00-12.00 14.00-15.00 7 - REST DAY 8 - * Fitness/skills assessment Stop watch, heart rate monitor, peak flow test 10.00-15.00 9 - * Aerobic/cardiovascular * Ball work Heart rate monitor 10.00-12.00 14.00-16.00 10 - * Friendly ManU V Fulham - 12.15-14.00 11 - * Swimming * Match analysis Heart rate monitor Video analysis 10.00-12.00 15.00-18.00 12 - * Crossing + set pieces * Weight session - - 10.00-12.00 15.00-17.00 13 - * Anaerobic session * Nutritional analysis Heart rate monitor Nutritional analysis 10.00-12.00 14.00-15.00 14 - REST

    • Word count: 2883

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

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