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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill
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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport
- 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
- 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
- 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
- 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)
The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.
Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.
How to interpret an assignment task or essay title
- 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
- 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
- 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
- 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
- 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.
Technology in sport
- 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
- 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
- 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
- 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
- 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.
- Marked by Teachers essays 2
There are moments in the game when the goalkeeper comes off of their line to collect the ball, this is purely goal directed as the goalie has no intention to harm or injure the striker. When the goalie is collecting the ball, they may collide with the player or unintentionally hurt them if their leg is up. However, goalkeepers do not mean to, their goal is to get the football away from my goal; they more often then not do not want to hurt the striker in the process. Hostile Aggression - is a specific intent to harm another person.
- Word count: 3224