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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. A personal exercise programme to improve my all round performance during football.

    Speed- Is the ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time. Speed is important for sprinting. Flexibility- The range of movement around a joint. Flexibility is important for gymnastics. Muscular strength- The ability of the muscles to exert maximum force. Muscular strength is important for weight lifting. Skill related fitness Balance- The maintenance of the centre of mass over the base of support. This can be while the body is static or dynamic (moving). Balance is important for on the beam in gymnastics. Agility- Is the ability to change the direction of the body quickly.

    • Word count: 4456
  2. My sport,being netball,is easy to identify strengths and weaknesses on the court due to the game being in quite a small area compared to games like rugby or football,

    importantly,can focus on the players that i need to pass to to get the ball into the shooting circle.I can also throw the ball in the right spot for an oncoming player which doesn't waste time.My co-ordination strength would be shooting aswell,as my shooting is mostly perfect,if not i can always get the target,but its the case of perhaps not lifting the ball high enough if i miss.My weakness here would be agility.Even though i feel my agility is reasonably good,there is alot of room for improvement.If i have a good defence against me,it can be harder to change direction

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  3. Gerrard is widely regarded as one of the best players in the current Liverpool squad, if not the best. To date, Liverpool has been his only club. He joined as a boy in 1989

    He is one of the best central midfielders of present because not only is he a committed professional but also his physical attributes are hard to match. He is tough tackling and with great passing vision Gerrard is also capable of scoring spectacular goals.

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  4. The purpose of my training programme is to provide a guideline for myself to follow when exercising my six week programme in my chosen sport football. As well as this it will also target my areas for improvement

    lots of aspects over the six weeks and only make small improvements in each area whereas I can make large improvements in two aspects that will aid me more in a game situation. o I will be focussing on my muscle endurance/stamina as in a game I will be required to perform at a high intensity for long duration (90mins). The benefit of improved stamina means that I will be able to push myself harder throughout a match and so be able to make more energetic back tracking runs and more consistent forward runs during the game without fatiguing.

    • Word count: 4592
  5. Performance appraisals are of importance to the organisation, as they often provide the only measure of an individual's contribution and as such the means for identifying either over or under achievement

    From the point of view of an employee, performance appraisals should provide timely and accurate feedback on what the employer expects, how well the employee is meeting those expectations, and what the employee should do to improve his or her performance (Burns 1996). Modern performance theory and practice started with the industrial revolution in the late 18th century, although the widespread use of performance appraisal techniques didn't occur until post World War I. The earliest appraisal systems, despite focusing on just one measure; quantity output, could perhaps be viewed as the most objective of all.

    • Word count: 2075
  6. WORK AND EMPLOYMENT

    UPSKILLING THESIS This account focuses the individual and their ability to maximise their opportunities in the labour market through pursuing education and qualifications - Human Capital Theory. It is suggested that firms are increasingly investing in their workforce through greater training provision, so that the emphasis has shifted to 'human capital' as a central means of accumulating profit. Advances in technology require a more educated better trained workforce in order to cope with the increasing complexity of work tasks.

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  7. "Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skill" The role of feedback is very important in the learning of skills. Feedback also plays an important role in guidance

    The feedback must also be accurate, understandable, concise and constructive. Feedback can be, positive, negative, extrinsic/augmented, intrinsic, terminal, concurrent, knowledge of performance and knowledge of results. Positive feedback is when you give the trainee information about what they have done correctly. This is really important as we can then carry on doing what we have done correct, if we don't receive positive feedback we will then change the way we perform until we get told it's the correct way. For example we may get told in football that the accuracy was good because we looked at the ball as we struck also the power was good because we positioned our feet well when we struck the ball.

    • Word count: 700
  8. Describe 'Fitts and Posner's' phases of learning and explain how you would structure practices to enhance a performance. Learning is the process of producing relatively permanent changes in behaviour

    how he is going to move his arms and legs in order to strike the ball correctly. The learner must pay attention to the many details of the action. For example a goalkeeper in field hockey would also look at this e.g. where in the goal he should position himself and when receiving a shot how he should move his limbs (either legs or hands) to block the shot. It is also the same with a runner who will look at movements of their arms and legs. Due to the high cognitive involvement many gross errors are made when executing actions, which is a reason for inconsistency and variable performances.

    • Word count: 1300
  9. In this piece of coursework I am going to write an account of my experiences of getting an East Midlands Rugby Union trial and my build up to the day. It all started on a miserable day, rain pouring against the windows

    After a few minuets he walked in with a hand full of forms, he started to explain what the forms were for east midlands trials if we wanted to apply. After collecting the form I walked straight down to see my parents at work to give them the news. I couldn't believe what had happened, I was going to try out for a regional squad, an considering that I had never been consider for county going to east mids was the most amazing thing I could ever have wished for.

    • Word count: 1249
  10. Explanation of Friday Training

    He will be 40 yards away. Mike will get 5 attempts and each score will be written down and at the end added up. The next training session I hope Mikes score him proves as his passing should. I will be expecting Mike to get around 50-70 on his first go. The target will be about 5 metres wide, on its longest axis. The 100 point section will be around 0.5 metre, 50 point section will be 1 metre, 25 point section will be 1.5 metres and the last section will be 2 metres.

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  11. Discuss the differences between skill, ability and technique and explain how you would structure practices to enhance these components of fitness.

    Other continuums are Knapp's open-closed which is when skills are directly influenced by there surroundings e.g. environment and people. Pacing is where you are either self paced which are those controlled by the performer or externally paced which are those where the timing of the skill is controlled by an invigilator. Discrete/continuous is where the skill or skills have a clear beginning and ending or if they do not. Skills are put into four different categories: Perceptual ~ Interpreting stimuli, Cognitive ~ Thinking, Motor ~ Movement, Perceptual motor ~ thinking, decision making and movement.

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  12. Explanations of sessions I have chosen Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday so it can fit into Mike's weekly plan. As he has training for his club o

    As it is very demanding just training on speed and fitness for two hours so I shorten it. Also I don't want Mike getting bored, from just running My sessions will start at 1 o'clock finishing at 3 o'clock giving Mike lots of time in the morning before his training starts as he needs extra sleep if he is to complete the high intensity training. When the training finishes at 3 o'clock it gives Mike enough time to rest and recuperate during the afternoon.

    • Word count: 562
  13. There are many factors that are important for swimming 400m freestyle. The very first is the shallow racing dive. This is important because it starts off the race and the reaction time must be fast

    Kicking in freestyle is extremely important as it keeps you balanced and flat in the water. Different swimmers have different race plans, but mine is to go out at a reasonably fast pace, to get into a good, quick rhythm, and then pick up the pace again at the 300m point. This then can help to get a faster time and a better position. A good finish can be the difference between winning a race and not making it into the podium.

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  14. Use practical examples to show how a coach uses feedback to help a performer to learn a skill?

    a badminton player assessing their serve after it has gone into the net again. Another type of Feedback is Extrinsic Feedback. This is feedback from external sources such as a teacher or coach. It is mostly received by the visual and auditory systems and is used to augment intrinsic feedback. I believe that this type of feedback is very important to beginners, as they are limited to their use of intrinsic feedback as they may not know what the perfect execution feels like.

    • Word count: 964
  15. 'Appraisal systems formalize the review part of the performance cycle' (Torrington & Hall,1995). Performance appraisal deals with the measurement of performance

    Both parties will be looking for feedback and an understanding of what future action is required on both sides. Appraisal is not a "one size fits all" process. The right appraisal system is the one best fit for your organisations culture and suitability for its purpose (www.performancemanagement.co.uk). This would suggest that not all organisations have the same purpose from their appraisal system, which is also true. The main reason today why organisations use performance appraisal is that, 'quality feedback improves performance' (Gillen, 1995).

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  16. Phases of Skill Learning The first phase is the cognitive phase which is the ability to find out what has to be done in order

    This phase is only a short one. This phase needs a lot of practise and for the cognitive phase a closed practise is used. This is to not confuse the performer with other sorts of externalities such as opponents etc. Then secondly is the associative phase. After you have received and understood the information about what is required, you must practise in order to become familiar with the complexity of the skill, your past experience and motivation. This phase can also be aided by feedback.

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  17. Discuss the differences between skill, ability and technique and explain how you would structure practices to enhance these components of fitness. Skill, ability and technique are vital if you want to be good at any sport

    The type of practices used to improve skill will vary between the type of skill being learnt and the type of learner. There are 2 main types of skill, open and closed. An open skill is one that is directly affected by the environment, and therefore the skill will be different each time it is performed. For example when playing netball an interception would vary depending on the weather conditions, court conditions, speed of the ball, and the position of the opponent.

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  18. Using your experience from a team game, racket game and individual game, complete this question: Discuss the differences between skill, ability and technique and explain how you would structure practices to enhance these components of fitness.

    Perceptual skills are important because this refers to how you see something (i.e. the ball coming towards you in netball). One person may think the ball is further away, causing them to drop the ball, in comparison to another person. You also need motor skills, which involve movement and muscular control, for example; walking. Both perceptual and motor skills are then combined to come up with the final skills which are known as perceptual motor skills. These involve seeing a stimulus, interpreting it, thinking about what to do next and then doing it.

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  19. Observation of a player/competitor/participant or self analysis in a practice/game/activity situation. Activity: Cricket

    Then, make sure that you are in position before the bowler returns to the back of his approach. Take a deep breath and use an 'affirmation' or verbal cue (which may be a more emotional (e.g. "let's 'ave it!'") or task focused (e.g. "quick feet") that tells you that you are ready. Analyse and identify in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/ participant or self: The strengths which the competitor has are as followed: * Hand eye co-ordination * Good reaction time * Good balance whilst playing attacking and defensive shots The competitor best strength is his balance whilst playing attacking and defensive shots.

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  20. Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills

    This skill is psychomotor (developed through intrinsic) as he must think about where to place the ball in a corner (perceptual and cognitive). The skill can manoeuvre on the environmental requirements continuum as initially it should be closed as a corner should be high and placed into the box. However it's more open if the attack is heavily defended therefore a tactically short corner could be taken. Extrinsic Feedback-Verbal or visual, not coming from the performer of the skill e.g.

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  21. Identification and justification of the components of fitness

    Nevertheless a netball match lasts 60 minutes and the court is 100 feet long and 50feet wide so the team as a whole has to have good stamina to keep up with the pace of the game. The game is divided into four quarters and this helps the players recover from each quarter of play both physically and mentally. Netballers therefore usually carry out fartlek training which means 'speed play' it's a method of training in which we vary pace and training conditions, since in netball we wouldn't constantly be running at one particular speed.

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  22. My main aim is to complete a training programme, focusing on mainly developing the use of stamina in Netball.In order to achieve my main aim

    Some of the theoretical aspects, learnt in class, which I shall apply to my training programme are: * The planning of my fitness programme * The appropriateness of my chosen activities or training methods for developing stamina in Netball. * The suitability of the programme in terms of age, sex and fitness levels taking into account injuries or medical conditions. * The four principles of training: specificity, progression, overload and reversibility. * The safety precautions needed to be taken whilst participating in the programme - lifting, carrying and the placement of equipment/apparatus.

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  23. An Ergogenic aid is known as an enhancing quality in sporting performance. Compounds such as bee pollen, caffeine, glycine, carnitine, lecithin, and gelatin are claimed through anecdotal evidence to improve strength or endurance.

    There are many out comes from different drugs such as increase of muscle mass and strength, weight loss, faster recovery, prolonged endurance but also illnesses, sport bans etc. There are many different athletes who use these wide ranges of supplements. They vary from swimmers, body builders, triathletes, footballers, weight lifters, runners, surfers, gymnasts, snooker players and many more. The supplements are used for many reasons such as to decrease heart rate and speed, to increase concentration, strength etc. Nutritional aids mainly aim to increase muscle tissue, energy and muscle energy stores.

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  24. What Should An Athlete Eat Before, During and After Exercise

    * It is also critical to drink plenty of cool water before exercise to keep muscles hydrated. During * Perspiration takes away valuable fluids, drink plenty of cool water or energy drinks during exercise.

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  25. In netball you need the four components of fitness, speed, strength, stamina and suppleness. You need to enhance these in order to improve your game. To do this you can do practices specific to the components of fitness

    Get a ball and find yourself a wall. Next, make lots of targets on the wall - either draw on a point with chalk or stick on some cardboard circles. Your targets should be different heights so you can perfect the chest, bounce, shoulder and overhead passes. Don't forget to vary how close you stand to the wall too. Get moving! Netball is normally played at a fast pace so it's important you stay fit and healthy.

    • Word count: 540

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