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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. Training and fitness for sport - task 3

    For example on Wednesday I set dean a target to run hard for 1 minute, recover for 1 minute; and to continue this for 10 minutes. Dean told me that he met these targets but found it hard enough so I decided to not increase week 3's aerobic endurance training sessions, as it would not be realistic and probably not achievable. By week 3 I had set dean even greater aerobic and muscular endurance targets by increasing the amount of reputations on each of his sets.

    • Word count: 991
  2. Impact of Steroids in Porfessional Sports

    These are only minor affects compared to effects like high blood pressure, increases in the LDL and decreases in the HDL, causing athletes and teens alike to have very poor cholesterol. There are also known cases of kidney tumours directly linked to steroid use. These known affects are too severe to allow human beings to undertake, just for a chance at fame or professional league sports. As well to these, there are gender specific changes that can occur. Males can experience smaller testicles due to less need of testosterone, as well as reduced sperm count and infertility.

    • Word count: 920
  3. Achieving Peak Performance - the role of other professionals. Nutritionist,Physiotherapist/Doctor,Psychologist, Coaches and Manager.

    An example of a nutritionist and the jobs she has to do is Pamela Paul, who is the official dietician of Falkirk FC. She ensures that all players at the club are aware of the type of foods they should be eating on a daily basis. Her daily role at the club includes individually assessing the player nutritional status and intake, advice on their individual nutritional needs and requirements the changes that they will need to make in their food and drink.

    • Word count: 1614
  4. Session plan - coaching football skills.Aim - improve close control, one touch passing and awareness.

    first aid box so that if a player is injured during participation he can sit in this area so its not disturbing the other group from the objective Goal check - making sure the goals are secure so they don't fall and inure the goal keeper or one of the players Ball check - making sure the footballs all have the correct amount of pressure so that they are usable without the participants complaining Alternative facility If astro turf is to flooded we will go into the gym and I will do my session there but in a smaller space.

    • Word count: 758
  5. Physical Education-Javelin

    improve performance in this event and allow an athlete to throw the javelin further, the athlete must train to achieve the maximum initial velocity they can physically create.[5] To do so, it is important to have a fitness training program specifically designed to target the muscle groups and fibres commonly used in javelin. These muscle groups include the shoulders, pectorals, triceps, abdominal, and wrist muscles.[2] The athlete then trains to increase their capacity of maximum strength for each of these muscle groups, later training to reach their maximum strength as quickly as possible by developing fast-twitch muscle fibres (Type IIB)

    • Word count: 2020
  6. Sport Science - Sport Psychology Task 3

    Distress Distress is the negative stress that performers often try to avoid. In many sports distress is bound to be caused by the opponent due to the competitive nature of the sport. It can therefore be said that poor performance can be the direct result of distress. The sporting environment can cause distress to a player which can lead to unintentional failure. A good example of this is baseball; the pitcher will pitch the ball in way that will cause the batter distress, as it is his prerogative to do so. This distress can lead to a foul swing and a negative performance.

    • Word count: 2512
  7. Learning theories in sport

    could become conditioned to an external stimulus (bell) hereby creating a conditioned reflex/response. B. F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) Operant Conditioning - operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior.

    • Word count: 1792
  8. Types of Learning and how they apply to developing football skills.

    The athlete will remember competitive moments were he/she has carried out a skill that has been successful; they will then remember that skill and try to include it in the next situation, the athlete will do this many times with their experience the skill will gradually progress. Attitudinal: Attitudinal learning is using your own conscience when faced with choices. Not one person on this earth will have the same thoughts, personality and confidence so each persons choices will be for their own specific reason.

    • Word count: 2359
  9. Sports Analysis (Tennis)

    Biomechanically I am going to be looking at a factor that is vital. I will be looking at the serving technique and how this affects the success rate of your serve. To test these I am going to be measuring serving percentage during repeated tests and calculate an average and a range. I am going to be using video analysis to compare my serving technique to that of Andy Murray and analyse areas that need improvement. I will be conducting a serving exercise that will need me to do 10 serves from each side, 5 times.

    • Word count: 4164
  10. Sports Analysis (cricket)

    It is important for the bowler to know exactly how long his or her run-up is because it needs to terminate at the popping crease. If the bowler steps over this, he or she will have bowled a no ball. Fast Bowlers rely on speed to get a batsman out. This type of bowler can be further classified according to the speed at which they bowl the ball on average. Most pace bowlers are medium-fast to fast in top level cricket.

    • Word count: 2010
  11. Training Method Examples For Six Components Of Fitness In Football

    Disadvantage of weight training: Can become very repetitive and can become hard to find interesting. Body Composition The best method to gain good body composition is to do a regular circuit training session. As good body composition is related to good overall body health it is important to train muscles all over the body. Therefore being the best to train all over is to do circuit training. Circuit training will have different stations where there will be a different body part to work on at each.

    • Word count: 670
  12. Skills, Techniques and Tactics for 5 a side Football and Basketball.

    Passing (long pass)- When making a long pass it is similar to shooting because you have to use power. When making a long pass you should plant your non passing foot to the side of the ball and then kick the ball with the other foot. One of the best players in the world at picking out a pass is Cesc Fabregas. Control- When controlling the ball you have very soft feet and should try and cushion the ball. When the ball is going towards you it is very important to keep your eye on the ball incase it bobbles off the floor then you will need to reshape your body so you can control the ball.

    • Word count: 1834
  13. Collect information to prepare to coach

    within the muscle structure * Neuogenic - changes to the connection between muscle and nerve Why: core strength is crucial to a player who seeks to avoid tackles and deliver power where it is most needed depending on the threat being faced by the player at any one point in the game. To improve strength requirements of a top rugby player, set out a range of drills designed to develop this specific skill. A Speed Distance travelled per unit time across the ground or apparatus. It can also be the speed of the technique such as a conversion in rugby.

    • Word count: 1536
  14. Using Sport Psychology to Help my Performance in Volleyball.

    Therefore this type of goal is inaccurate and should not be the main goal. However as part of the program 2 outcome goals had to be selected. For this program the two outcome goals selected were, to achieve a VHA in volleyball and to gain a sense of fluency when playing the game of volleyball. Performance goals are targets that are directed toward achieving individual skills or behaviours, and tend to be the most effective type of goal because they involve "learning at the risk of making mistakes, they improve problem-solving, and they encourage the athlete to work harder" (Dr.

    • Word count: 1466
  15. Choose three different target groups of sports participants. Describe and explain (P2, M2) barriers they would encounter on the sports continuum. Analyse (D1) the barriers to participation, providing effective and realistic solutions

    women's life Transport There aren't many women's teams around therefore there aren't as many local team for women as there are for men. This means they have to travel further to play the sport the wish to. This means they need to find more time and extra money to travel to the required places. Media The media don't often give sports women much attention. National newspapers are usually based on men's football and rugby teams putting women out of the spotlight.

    • Word count: 1264
  16. Tactical analysis in preparation for performance (Football)

    In its prime basics, football contains two teams existing of 11 players. It lasts for a maximum of 90 minutes with two halves of 45 minutes each way. The aim of the game is to score against the opposition team in the goals which are defended by the opposition. A goal is scored when the ball completely crosses the goal line. A basic layout of a football pitch can be seen above. A team is allowed to substitute (switch) a maximum of three players throughout the game. These substitutes can be selected from a group of 5-7 players.

    • Word count: 2300
  17. Free essay

    Practical Sports Study (Individual) log Book for Badminton

    decide, they cover their eyes and it means unsighted meaning the point has to be replayed back (diagram and instruction are shown on appendix 1). Services Judge - has to sit on a chair by the post, preferably opposite the umpire and their role is to judge is the server delivers a correct service, if not, call "FAULT" loudly and then they use the approval hand signal (diagram and instruction are shown on appendix 1). Umpire - their roles are to look around and listen to any calls from the line judge and call out the player(s)

    • Word count: 2428
  18. Describing and Explaining the Components of Fitness. Fitness and fitness testing

    These sorts of tests provide the trainers, coaches and athletes with meaningful information about what's going fine or what area needs progress. Testing Components of Fitness Flexibility what it is: is the measure of free movement in person's joints .This is especially needed for gymnast? However the range depends on the ligaments and muscles surrounding the joint, shape of the articulating surfaces and contact between tissue masses of adjacent segments. Flexibility can change, the change occurs when muscle and connective tissue adapt to range of motion frequently used and if full ranged is not used often then muscle and connective tissues tend to shorten.

    • Word count: 5058
  19. Barriers Affecting Disabled People in Sport

    Amongst the results, Sport England discovered that just over 50% of the disabled population had taken part in any kind of sporting activity in the last month before the survey. This is 24% less than non-disabled people. Looking at the experiences of disabled people who take part in sport, the study found that: Of those disabled adults who participated in sport in the 12 months before the survey, 65% would like to play more. Also a negative experience in sport due to their health problem or disability was reported by 14% of disabled adults.

    • Word count: 1214
  20. Barriers Affecting Ethnic Minorities in Sport

    Also this may be due to the lack of educational opportunity and aspiration for ethnic minorities. Identifying the Barriers There are many different barriers that people of an ethnic minority face. These include assumptions made about Black and Ethnic minority people, for example that all Asian girls aren't allowed to wear swimsuits. This can limit their opportunities to take up sport. Also they may not be able to use mixed s*x facilities, meaning they may not be able to take part in many activities at local gyms or leisure centres. It could be argued that Muslim women are a minority within a minority, the world of sport is widely a male dominated sport and there are changing issues about the visibility of Muslim women in sport.

    • Word count: 1256
  21. Dietary Guidlines

    Also helps with weight control, although if you have too much then you could gain weight. Bran Flakes is a simple and wholesome way to help improve the health of your digestive system. Cereal - Ready Brek with a Yogurt. This contains protein; it is not to heavy or light, perfect to start off the day. Also helps with weight control. Also a yogurt is good because it has some fruit in it and it tastes good. It is a great way to boost your energy levels. It's packed full of delicious and nutritious finely milled oats which will make it perfect for any player, young players especially.

    • Word count: 2032
  22. Psychological Factors

    Steven Gerrard plays football because he enjoys it, he once said that if he wasn't a professional, he would be playing for a men's team on a Sunday and playing when ever he can. * Extrinsic Extrinsic is to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as medals or money. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good

    • Word count: 1778
  23. Lifestyle Factors

    It obviously isn't as easy as it looks to give up alcohol but there are ways in which you and lower the amount of alcohol you drink, for example drink only once or twice a week instead of 4 times a week. If it's harder than you thought to completely quit drinking, perhaps you could find ways to control the amount you drink. When you go out make sure you know how much you drink and set your self restrictions.

    • Word count: 1498
  24. Sports leadership evaluation - In this assignment I am going to look at my 6 hockey sessions, I will be looking at the sessions so I can a***s myself on sports leadership and to look at ways of how I can improve.

    Health and safety issues include checking the courts for slippery and dangerous objects as well as checking the participants for correct kit such as trainers and shin pads and checking for any jewellery they may have left on. The main aims of my sessions were to promote participation and enjoyment. Throughout my evaluation I am going to be looking at if I have achieved these aims as well as looking at my sport leadership skills. To become a good leader you need to have specific qualities to become a good leader you need to be able to interact with people, work as part of a team but also be able to think on your feet to get participants motivated.

    • Word count: 1739

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