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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. Sports organising events - The aim of our event is to make sure all participants are enjoying the event and dont get bored by it, we will try and keep them all involved at all times. It is also important to think about the safety of both the participan

    * The aim of the game is not to allow the ball to fall onto your own side of the "court" more than once before you return it to the opposing team. * Players can have as many touches of the ball as they wish, as long as the ball does not bounce more than once throughout the team. * The ball must not bounce outside of the court. * Participants will not be allowed to use their hands to control the ball or return it to the opposing team.

    • Word count: 736
  2. Session plan Free Weight component - barbell lifts

    Shoulders facing forward * Get set position * Over hand grip * Grip Shoulder with apart Action * Stand up leading with the shoulders keeping bar close to the body at all times * Don't hyper extend knees * Return the bar by flexing the knees and hips * Ensure a natural curve in maintained in the spine * Deadlift the bar back

    • Word count: 352
  3. Describe and explain energy intake and expenditure in sports performance P3, M1

    A swimmer will need to consume 12-15% of protein in their diet. The longest swimming takes less than 15 minutes to complete so you're body will be mostly using carbohydrates. A swimmers body composition should be in-between mesomorph and endomorph. Body composition is used to classify an individual's body shape and size. There are three body types, even though an individual will not fit in the body type perfectly it is still a excellent method. The three body composition is ectomorph, endomorph and mesomorph. The reason swimmers fall in-between mesomorph and endomorph is because the swimmer doesn't need to have an excess of muscle, or else it will counter the stroke pattern and will mess up.

    • Word count: 1997
  4. Describe and explain the components of a balanced diet P6, M4

    Protein - essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Protein are complex molecules, the body takes longer to break them down. As a result, they are a much slower and longer lasting source of energy than carbohydrates. Protein is found in dairy products such as eggs and meats. The normal protein requirements are 0.75g per kilogram of body weight per day for a female it will be 45g and 55.5g per day for a male. For athletes the intake should be 1.2-1.7g per kilogram body weight per day.

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  5. Tatical analysis - Tactics are extremely important in a game of Netball as they help to score goals and consequently win the game.

    The success of all centre passes should be noted and teams should readjust their tactics to improve their performance from these notes. All players who intend to receive the centre pass must run forward into the centre demonstrating effective movement skills and using strong and efficient footwork to receive the ball successfully at speed. The player receiving the first pass should turn fully to locate the strait line options, if there are no strait line options, this player will rely on the square pass to the player moving on the overlap run.

    • Word count: 1353
  6. Fitness testing

    The distance from fingertips to box edge becomes your starting point. Executing your Exercise: Slowly bend hips and reach forward as far as possible. Move fingers along ruler to reach final position. Practise three times. The fourth time keep final position for two seconds and measure the value. To get results: Practice the exercise 3 times then get a partner to record you the fourth time, then look at the practices and your fourth results and see if you've gone further than your practices, well done. Advantages: This exercise should take about 5 minutes, this is an advantage because it's a quick and easy exercise to do, also there isn't anything

    • Word count: 4270
  7. Pe: Performance Profile Analysis

    During my time at Rayleigh boys I played in a variety of positions, such as right back, right midfield, centre midfield and as a striker. The position which I enjoy playing in the most is the centre midfield, this is because you are involved in much of the play and much of the team depends on how you perform, giving you more responsibility, also I prefer the centre midfield position to the right midfield position because in that position you would normally have to wait for the play to come to you.

    • Word count: 4060
  8. Describe 3 Different Occupations within the Sports Industry

    the problem is than the Doctor can use torso's or images to explain and make it clear for the patient. * Have patience, be helpful, careful, confident, understanding and trustful; A patient can be very panicked or shocked when the problem or cause of its illness is discovered, therefore the Doctor needs to have patience and to tell the patient that everything is going to be alright, and nothing worse is going to happen. The Doctor needs to understand the problems, and encourage the patients.

    • Word count: 1502
  9. Free essay

    Compare and contrast the physical fitness requirements and skill related fitness requirements

    Different lengths will require a different endurance for example, 1500m will require more than an 800m race. In netball aerobic endurance is important so the player can perform to the best of their ability throughout the whole of the game. Although netball players do get 3 short breaks as the match is split up into four 15 minute quarters, they also get short breaks throughout the game whilst the ball is at the other end of the court. The netball player can use this time as recovery time. Middle distance runners need more aerobic endurance as they don't get any breaks at all and need to keep a good pace to do well and finish their race.

    • Word count: 1433
  10. Analysis in Football

    If you want to improve your tackling skills, you should work on your physical strength, anticipation, balance and mobility. Another strength of Kane's is heading. Heading is a discrete skill, this means you can clearly see a beginning and end. When he headers the ball he uses the upper part of his forehead. This part of the skull will not injure or hurt, because it is comprised of only skin and thick bone. He also makes sure that he keeps his eye on the part of the ball that he wants to head, and his eye on the ball itself as he can see where it will land so that he can attack it rather than letting it his head.

    • Word count: 2133
  11. Sports leadership. In this unit of work I am going to look at what a sports leader is and what they do.

    An example is leading a netball catching session and one child can't catch well. You should put your self into their shoes and to consider how they are feeling and to ensure you don't upset them or embarrass them. Explaining and going through the skills step by step with the child encouraging them throughout will give the child confidence and help them achieve what they want to. Confidence is a characteristic of an effective sports leader. Confidence is feeling comfortable in the activity you are carrying out putting in maximum effort to engage all participants.

    • Word count: 2721
  12. Discuss the role of feedback for learning skills for individual, racket and team sports

    Positive and negative refer to what kind of feedback is given. Positive is focusing on what you did well in the task, whereas negative is focusing on what wasn't as good and what you need to improve. Terminal and concurrent feedback are when the feedback is given; terminal being when the feedback is given after the performance, and concurrent is during the performance. All of these methods of feedback have both advantages and disadvantages. It is important to change the type of feedback you give or receive depending on the type of sport.

    • Word count: 1254
  13. Local and National Provision

    Football Foundation's aims are to "provide more schools, clubs and parks with more modern football facilities" (www.footballfoundation.org.uk) and to make football a part of the community. An important body which is involved in football is the Independent Football Commission (IFC). They "work closely with fans, clubs and the football authorities, to make sure that the needs of the football community are being met" (www.theifc.co.uk). They do this by making unannounced visits to football clubs to make sure that they are doing what they should be. They check on things such as child protection, disabled football and football in the community.

    • Word count: 1208
  14. Free essay

    Analysis and performance for football

    Intermediates would need feedback to progress and to get to the autonomous stage, which only the best get to. Torres also shows he has motor skills by moving and controlling muscles effectively in order to sprint and get the ball. This is related to co-ordination - as soon as players with good motor skills see the ball, their body automatically repositions themselves to be in the right place. He shows he has cognitive skills by thinking about where other players are positioned in relation to him and deciding what to do with the ball.

    • Word count: 810
  15. How can you alter your style of teaching to meet the demands of different practice or competitive situations for individual, racket and team activities?

    At one end of the spectrum, there is command style. This is where the teacher instructs the learner on how to do everything, therefore there is no freedom for the learner. An example of this is when learning a dance routine - students must follow the teacher or they will go wrong. Next, there is style B, the practice style. In this, the learner still does what the teacher says, however they develop their own sense of pace and rhythm.

    • Word count: 1132
  16. Personal Exercise Program #2

    Power is very important for my sport and I am fair in the category when compared to certain norms I struggle. Components of Fitness Speed - the capacity to move the whole body at the greatest velocity Why is it important? Both max speed and speed endurance are required in rugby. For example max speed is important to make the quick sprint between breakdowns and speed endurance is needed to the longer runs such as support or line running. Speed is essential for any rugby player regardless of position Strength - Ability of muscles to exert maximum force during a single contraction Why?

    • Word count: 6466
  17. sport development

    This allows a really well informed set of decisions to be made, but it may act slowly. The sorts of participation that might be consulted include local politicians, Sport England, community representatives, club reps, social services, the police, sports governing bodies, experts in planning events or disability sports, sports scientists, sport centre managers, health authority reps and professional bodies in sport. Roles Sports development has many partners, aims, dimensions, individuals and organisations, each playing a role. This leads to a range of different schemes and approaches.

    • Word count: 1363
  18. Action Plan to improve my knowledge and understanding of a horse within the dressage phase

    It will be hard at first for Nebraska to find his balance as he will be working in a lot slower pace in which he is used to, each movement will also need to be a lot more collected. A racehorse is trained to gallop, whereas an event needs to be balanced in walk, trot, canter and gallop. Whilst the show jumping and cross country phases both include fences like a point to point would have had. The way you approach each fence is completely different to that of a race horse where they go as fast as they can at them.

    • Word count: 3756
  19. Skill analysis coursework

    1st serve (right box) 2nd serve (right box) 1st serve (left box) 2nd serve (left box) 4/10 40% 5/10 50% 5/10 50% 6/10 60% Looking at the quantitative data, you can see that the average serve success rate was quite poor. Only 40 to 60% of the serves were successful. Looking at the data qualitatively, you can see that there is a major flaw in my performer serving ability. The major problem in my performer's ability is the toss up, take back and contact. To perform an effective serve these three subroutines have to be performed precisely.

    • Word count: 6000
  20. A2 pe coursework

    Jenny takes time to aim who her pass goes to * Jenny does not rush the passes that she carries out * Jenny tries to concentrate on what she is doing * Jenny puts full effort into pushing the ball as far as possible * She doesn't use her full body weight to push the ball on further * When jenny passes the ball, she doesn't always take into account the fact that the person they are passing to is moving.

    • Word count: 4660
  21. Aims of my Personal Exercise Programme

    Definition of skill-related components: Those dimensions of fitness that are based on the interaction of the neuromuscular system and determine how successfully a performer can carry out a specific skill. To choose the certain components for my sport, I need to set myself aims for the programme in which I would like to improve for myself. This will link into which components I need to look specifically at. The health related aims include: * Many dance styles (e.g. Modern) need flexibility throughout all dance movements.

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  22. I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey. Within in hockey there are certain components of fitness that are needed to ensure that the athlete is performing to the best of their ability.

    All 9 of these components are split into two main groups of fitness: Physical fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigued state. These include strength, endurance, speed and flexibility. Or Motor fitness refers to the ability of an athlete to perform successfully at their sport. These include agility, balance, co-ordination and power. For my PEP I will have to choose one of these components for me to concentrate on and improve over the training period.

    • Word count: 4579
  23. A balanced diet for children

    Nutrients: Chemical substances found in food that are needed by the body in order for it to stay healthy. 3. Variety of interesting dishes: A number of different types of dishes in the same category that is able to amused and attract the children. 4. Children in a day nursery: Children aging from 3-6 years old in a nursery for the care of small children during the day. The chosen words and phrases are important because it elaborates more behind the question itself.

    • Word count: 2168
  24. Analysis of Performance

    Although Women did have their own games in honour of the god Hera (female god) held in the Olympic stadium. These games consisted of three separate races including a stade race similar to the mens race but shorter. The victors of the Ancient Olympic Games received an olive crown and had a statue erected at Olympia. They were not paid but were treated as celebrities in their local town. In 336 AD the games collapsed after Christian values replaced the pagan values of the games. There were several attempts to create modern Olympic Games including the; 1612 Robert Dover Games and the 1850 Much Wenlock Olympic Games.

    • Word count: 3630
  25. Aquiring Skill

    The suggested factors required to be a good leader include: * Sport-specific skills/knowledge * Interpersonal skills * Peer respect * Good communication skills * Empathy * Consistency * Fairness (Galligan et al, 2000, p. 113) It is important for a leader to have a good knowledge of their sport as they should be able to make reliable decisions and instruct other to do so as well. Having a knowledgeable performer in charge could well boost the performance of the whole team.

    • Word count: 1333

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