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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. Energy Balance

    Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports. Adaptive Thermogenesis Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) represents the way the body responds to stress whether it is emotional or environmental (for example, changes in temperature). Typically, stressful situations result in an increase in calories burned. Show with worked examples how energy expenditure can be calculated for a rest day, a training day and a match day. I can compare my energy expenditure calculations, to that of published data. I will explain why there could be any differences. This table below shows certain exercises per hour and the amount of kcal that activity will expend.

    • Word count: 1899
  2. A balanced diet

    From the bloodstream it can be used immediately as energy or stored in the liver and in the muscles. A minimum recommended daily intake of at least 50 percent of the total kilocalories consumed should come from complex carbohydrate sources. The British Nutrition Foundation found that in Britain the average intake of carbohydrate is 272g for men and 193g for women, which provides just over 43 percent of their diet. As with most nutrients, eating excess amounts can lead to problems. Excessive consumption of sugar can lead to tooth decay and is linked to a number of major diseases e.g.

    • Word count: 2180
  3. P.E. PEP section 2

    A warm up motivates you mentally and physically for the training activity. It is important not only to prepare your body but also to prevent it from injury and undue muscles fatigue and soreness, during or after exercise. Sport specific stretches in my warm up; Stretches to all the leg muscles, to loosen them so that they are ready and able to make needed movements in football without injury. A popular football warm up is passing the ball with another player. This results in achieving the same benefits already mentioned that a normal warm up achieves but it also gets you in the right mental phase for playing football.

    • Word count: 796
  4. Free essay

    Training and Fitness: Methods of Training

    And, specificity of training dictates that the training should closely resemble the activity, or event: Runners should run, swimmers swim, for example. Thus, to improve cardiovascular endurance, the athlete should train aerobically. What factors affect AEROBIC TRAINING? * Frequency * Duration/Time * Intensity Aerobic training, as mentioned above - is very beneficial to any able individual: It decreases the resting heart rate, improves blood circulation around the body - by constantly clearing out cholesterol build up and it also improves physiological disposition where it is able to ultimately reduce tension and stress.

    • Word count: 1099
  5. Psychology in Sport: Anxiety, Stress and Sports Performance

    It indicates that high trait anxiety leads to high state anxiety. Where anxiety is an emotional state, it is closely linked to cognitive arousal, usually characterised by feelings of worry, apprehension and psychological tension. According to sports psychologist Speilberger - there are two forms of anxiety: Trait anxiety and State anxiety. Trait Anxiety The official definition of trait anxiety is defined as: " A trait that is enduring in an individual. A performer with high trait anxiety has the predisposition or the potential to react to situations with apprehension."

    • Word count: 4233
  6. PEP The aspect of fitness I am going to develop is strength. This is because my chosen sport, golf, has had rapid improvements in club technology enabling players to hit the ball further.

    And I feel with a fairly intense training plan, specific to improving strength, the length I hit the ball will increase and as a result, my golf will improve. General Fitness: the ability to cope effectively with the stresses of everyday life. Specific Fitness: level beyond general fitness where a greater level of skill is required in order to meet the more specific demand of an activity. Fitness also has both health and skill related aspects. Health related aspects. These include: aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility and body composition.

    • Word count: 9398
  7. Personal exercise plan

    I will be completing my trekking expeditions within college and during my duke of Edinburgh experience outside of college. I have spent a lot of time within a gym, developing variation components of fitness throughout the years such as anaerobic weight lifting, aerobic weightlifting, cardiovascular training and plymetrics. Previous Injuries I have not developed any serious injuries throughout my life, involved within sport. I have not experienced any broken bones or major muscle injuries. I have sustained a minor sprain in my ankle during a Rugby match, however nothing to a degree that would leave me absent from sport over a length of time.

    • Word count: 7862
  8. Leadership Essay

    Yet if the coach deliberates with the individual and they work together in producing a training plan it is more likely that the athlete will put more effort into the task. Thomas Carlyle (1847): The qualities found in individuals to become a leader are in us from birth, the skills to be a great leader cannot be learnt. This is more of a psychological response to leadership and is almost contradicted by practice of leaders in sport today. Many of the great leaders in sport today have often been in the port for a long time, gaining experience and knowledge and building on their skills as a leader.

    • Word count: 1784
  9. Motivation essay

    Intrinsically motivated people tend to be introvert and very quiet. These people can be seen running the 10k event at the Olympics (Jo Pavey or Paula Radcliffe) contrasting sharply with those competing in power events such as the pole vault (Yelena Isinbyeva) or the 100m (Asafa Powell). Extrinsic motivation is said to come from outside the individual. External stimuli motivate the individual, things such as monetary rewards, trophies, sponsorships and publicity feature highly in the athlete's desire to perform. Sporting examples of such individuals can easily been seen across the English premiership and championship football leagues.

    • Word count: 1189
  10. Local and National

    Locally StarTrack has also been successful. The Amateur Athletics Association, based in Kings Lynn, encourages StarTrack as a way of introducing new talent to athletics and has 3 venues within the county. The local AAA have also introduced shine awards initiative within the StarTrack scheme to encourage the young athletes to strive to be better and gain a sense of achievement. The shine awards provide children from the age of three with fun physical challenges and the opportunity to gain various awards for their efforts.

    • Word count: 1843
  11. Skill Acquisition Essay

    Also banners around the pitch may bare the same colour as the opponent's kit and so may cause confusion by weakening the stimuli. Squash on the other hand has no direct view of spectators, only the opponent within a bright court, so this environment strengthens stimuli. And Thai boxing would have spectators, but within a white lit up ring with just the opponent and a very obvious black and white referee, so stimuli would be strengthened. Audition - A Rugby match is full of shouting both on and off the pitch as with most team games, thus resulting in a weakening of stimuli like the call of a team mate.

    • Word count: 1441
  12. Free essay

    Fitts and posners

    Also the use of role models is used to help the perfomer's confidence. " congotive phase- Identifiaction and development of the components parts of the skill - involves formation of a mental picture of the skill " http://www.brainmac.co.uk/tech.htm examples of Cognative phase Team Racket Individual Hockey- showing the performer how to hold the stick correctly. This is the 1st time a person might have held a hockey stick so must be taught how to hold it correctly and the rules. Tennis- showing how to grip the tennis racket correctly. They must also be shown how to position them selves and how to strike a ball as they are beginners Golf- How to grip the club properly.

    • Word count: 1394
  13. factors affecting performance

    take place, positive feedback concerning the position of the feet allows continual advances in skill level as the athlete will no longer change that precise aspect of the skill which is given the praise and consequently focuses on the positioning of the hands. Eventually the athlete will receive positive feedback in all technical aspects of the skill and continue to practice the correct method, significantly improving their hockey performance. Negative feedback is another example of feedback that is "used to inform the athlete as to what was incorrect about the movement.

    • Word count: 2576
  14. principles of training

    Progression will be achieved when a good level and regular overload takes place. For example, if you don't increase the amount of exercise or type of exercise you do you will not see any progression Overload- overload states that a greater than normal stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take place. The body will adapt to this stimulus. Once the body has adapted then a different stimulus is required to continue the change. You must work your body harder than what you usually do if you want to see changes in your level of fitness.

    • Word count: 610
  15. Describe and explain my chosen fitness training methods

    Strength Training methods: The ability for our body to overcome a resistance. There are 4 types of training, circuit, weight, specific and plyometric. Description: Circuit training is use to improve general and specific strength, it is when a group of 6 to 10 strength exercises that are completed one exercise after another. Weight training is carried out by using weights, equipment and machines. Specific strength training includes exercises that are specific to a sport for example add a football to the agility run to make it specific to sport. Plymometric training this improves strength or speed at which the muscles contract.

    • Word count: 934
  16. national study swimming

    Through the aqua skills programme the children gradually progress through each term from inter-schools competition to leagues. During the sessions they also involve relays and fun-based games to help the children enjoy themselves whilst learning. There are a few facilities and coaching available for swimming at grass roots level, the first facility is the phoenix swimming pool in Gorleston, where aqua skills sessions are held for children aged 7-11 during school time. The second facility is Yarmouth high school swimming pool; this is used by both the students at the school and Great Yarmouth Swimming club. There is a third facility in the area called Marina Centre in Great Yarmouth but is only used for private swimming lessons paid for by parents of the children and does not provide sessions for schools or swimming clubs.

    • Word count: 529
  17. Leisure, Structure and Society

    In today's world leisure is seen as a totally different concept from when it first existed. In one-way leisure can be defined as time away from constraints, such as work. People also have the opportunity and freedom to choose to take part in the leisure activity they enjoy the most. This is compared to when leisure first came about during the reign of the ancient Greeks. Leisure today has had a big influence from Greek philosophers such as Plato and one of his students, Aristotle. Around 500BC during the Greek civilisation era the birth of the "leisure ethic" came about.

    • Word count: 1717
  18. Critical analysis swimming

    As the starter says 'take your marks' he then takes a sort of crouching position and leans forward, his head is now tucked into his chest. His hands and grabbing the front edge of the block to keep stability and balance As the starter then blows the whistle or presses the start button, he then begins to lift his head forward. He drives off the block using the front foot which in theory should be his strongest, the arms drive back into a v position for maximum propulsion.

    • Word count: 978
  19. sports coaching

    Reece White 200419404 Bridget Ratch - Assignment 1

    • Word count: 11
  20. legislations in sport

    When using such harming substances great care needs to be used when handling these substances. A hazardous substance is that is dangerous to human health and the environment. There are many substances which are a hazard for example: explosive, irritating, radioactive, corrosive, oxidizing, and inflammable. Hazardous substances can be found in the most simple of things for example cleaning liquids, paints and dust. This legislative is very important for athletes who take part in swimming so that the company are covered if a swimmer becomes ill from any hazardous substances.

    • Word count: 1507

    The skills tend to be self-paced, for example taking a penalty in football. Knapp suggests that skills can fit on a continuum between open and closed. The External and Internal Paced Continuum Self paced skills are those that are instigated by the performer and externally paced skills are those where the timing of the performance of the skill is not controlled by the performer, but by an outside instigator. This continuum is concerned with the timing of movements (and is often used with the open-closed continuum) - internal and external paced skills Self-paced skills: the performer controls the rate at which the skill is executed.

    • Word count: 1820
  22. local and national provision

    Step into Sport focuses on young people aged 14-19, giving them opportunities to become involved in sports leadership and volunteering and encouraging them to continue this into later life. Kickz involves taking constructive activity onto targeted local estates with high instances of anti-social behaviour (ASB). The provide three sessions per week for 48 weeks of the year at times that have been identified with high levels of crime. The three sessions will include football coaching, competitions and a flexible session, the content of which will be influenced by the young people.

    • Word count: 1702
  23. Information processing

    The player's stimulus is the ball and the opponents. The vision of the player is the place of the opponent, goalkeeper and the direction of the ball. The tactile is controlling he ball, the audition is shouts from his team mates or the crowd, and the proprioception is the player being able to maintain his balance while hitting the ball so that it goes the direction and speed he wants it. The short term sensory store of the player will be affected by comments from the crowd, players, the position of the opponents and any team mates he may be able to pass the ball to.

    • Word count: 1206
  24. motorbike research

    In 1896 the Hilde brand and Wolfiiler became the first motorcycle ever available for purchase. Until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacture was Indian. After that, this honour Harley-Davidson. So this is why I'm going to tell you about this leading brand. Harley Davidson simply began because of two young boys fooling around with motors in the garage; William Harley and Arthur Davidson who were childhood friends who loved fishing but hated the amount of time it took to get to their favourite fishing spots.

    • Word count: 1448

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