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AS and A Level: Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill

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Writing about ‘Arousal’ in sport

  1. 1 Definitions of arousal may vary, but whichever one you use, you must acknowledge the author and the date it was established. This practice is essential and normal for study in higher education.
  2. 2 Arousal is necessary and ideally is ‘managed’ to maintain ‘optimal’ levels. This means that you are ‘excited’ both cognitively and physiologically enough to be ‘ready’ to perform, but are not overly aroused so much that your performance will deteriorate as a result.
  3. 3 Many questions or assignments will expect you to analyse the 3 key theories of arousal : Drive, Inverted U and Catastrophe Theory. Analysis requires you to present both the credible or advantageous side to the theory AND the less constructive or valuable perspective (ie the good and bad points about it as a theory to explain something).
  4. 4 Theories are JUST that – They are someone’s interpretation or reasoning for something. They will present evidence to support their theory, however, it is possible that another person will disagree and will present a different theory as explanation. When writing ‘critically’ you should be open to exploring, considering and explaining BOTH perspectives.
  5. 5 Drive Theory (Hull, 1951) is the most simplistic and suggested that the more aroused you are, the more likely the dominant response will be performed (this doesn’t matter whether it’s the correct skill or not!)

    The Inverted U hypothesis (Hebb 1957); suggests that performance will increase up til the optimal level of arousal and above that, will ‘gradually’ descrease.

    Catastrophe theory (Fazey and Hardy 1988) develops this, but suggests that arousal above optimal levels will ‘catastrophically’ drop, but can be increased again if cognitive arousal is reduced and controlled.

How to interpret an assignment task or essay title

  1. 1 Understand the question fully BEFORE you write - whichever module topic it is from, the process of preparing and constructing the answer will be similar. It is good practice to interpret the title or question before you think about the answer or writing. Too often, students begin writing and just follow their stream of thought thereafter. This can lead to inconsistencies and disjointed arguments.
  2. 2 • Question analysis – what is the command verb being used. This is the verb that indicates what you have to do to the topic.
  3. 3 Question analysis – Analyse, discuss and evaluate are sometimes prefixed with ‘critically’ – these all require you to consider 2 sides or different perspectives on a topic, with your thoughts and conclusions.
  4. 4 Question analysis – Describe, outline and state are more simplistic and require statements about something. Explain takes this further and requires detail as to WHY you state something; a degree of reasoning.
  5. 5 • Sections of a question – Questions can sometimes require you to respond to more than one command verb and therefore write more than one section as an answer.

Technology in sport

  1. 1 Terminology – Use the appropriate jargon for equipment and facilities (eg: hypoxic or hypobaric chambers for simulated altitude training). This shows a higher level of research and knowledge.
  2. 2 Technology for safety –Many technological developments have intended to ensure the safety of participants and spectators. Sadly, many developments evolve as a result of a tragedy or where there have been problems (eg: a cord attaching runners on a treadmill to cut out the motor if they fall)
  3. 3 Technology for comfort – People of all levels of performance (from recreational to elite) appreciate and will buy equipment and clothing that allows them to train and compete in great comfort.
  4. 4 Technology for performance – There are so many examples of developments that increase an athlete’s performance. These include footwear suitable to different playing surfaces or SZR racing swim suit to reduce friction.
  5. 5 The technological debate – in any ‘critical’ task it should not be assumed that advances in technology are advantageous or appropriate. A higher level student will present arguments that both support and challenge the inclusion of technology in sport.

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  1. Health screening and monitoring questionnaire and declaration for a new client.

    The client?s trainer will be _____________________________. If cancellation is not received 24 hours in advance, the client agrees to pay in full for the scheduled session. This contract may be terminated with seven days written notice to the other party.

    • Word count: 398
  2. Practical team sports analysis - Football and Basketball

    For a team that is winning a game, a fresh midfielder or a defender can bring more benefit in strengthening the defence against the opposition's attackers (who may be fresh substitutes themselves). In this situation, it is usually imaginative attacking flair players who are replaced by tough-tackling defensive midfielders or defenders. Injured players may also need to be substituted. For each injured player who must be substituted, the team loses one more opportunity to influence things later in the game in their favour.

    • Word count: 3626
  3. Define personality and how personality affects performance

    Endomorph - Endomorphs are predisposed to storing fat, known to be sociable, friendly and fun loving. An endomorphic individual typically has short arms and legs and a large amount of mass on their frame. Their mass hampers their ability to compete in sports requiring high levels of agility or speed and perform sustained weight bearing aerobic activities such as running. Sports of pure strength, like power lifting, are perfect for an endomorph. They can gain weight easily and lose condition quickly if training stops. However the endomorphs can play at low club levels and are very social.

    • Word count: 2106
  4. A Self-Reflective Evaluation of a Paired Coaching Performance into Improving Attacking 2 (attackers) v 1 (defender) Skills during A Football Session.

    I also found that the group was more manageable because if I was coaching an individual Sophie would be watching and coaching the others in the group. This allowed more 1 to 1 coaching to take place, which benefited those who were struggling and needed help with the task set. ?Peer coaching focuses on the collaborative development, refinement and sharing of professional knowledge and skills.? (Becker, 1996). The disadvantage to working with a partner is that coaching points may be interpreted in different ways by the group from each of the coaches.

    • Word count: 1085
  5. Aerobic Endurance and Strength Training Programmes

    Heart health is another significant advantage of these workouts. People who participate in continuous exercise typically have a lower resting heart rate, which can lead to a reduced risk of heart diseases and cardiac stroke. As the body becomes more efficient at processing and distributing oxygen during workouts, the respiratory organs are strengthened as well. Muscular Endurance: Is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time.

    • Word count: 3602
  6. In this task I am going to name one method of training which can be used in order to improve the performance of an athlete in each of the 6 components of physical fitness

    Each of these three methods are essentially doing the same thing which is elongating the head of the muscle in order to allow for a greater range of motion. The type of stretching I am going to discuss in particular is Static Stretching. This is one of the most popular forms of stretching and is very effective in increasing an athlete?s flexibility if carried out correctly. 1. What is Static stretching? Static stretching is where the muscle is stretched in a controlled manner up until the point of bind, once in that position the stretch is held for a short period of time.

    • Word count: 1791
  7. Part practice can beneficial for cognitive learners, the skill can be broken down into sub-routines

    However, part practice doesn't develop a kinaesthesis for the movement and doesn't work on the skill as a whole. Therefore progressive part practice might be more useful to performers. Progressive part practice still breaks the skill down into sub-routines, but the sub-routines are brought together. This makes progressive part practice more useful for complex and serial skills. This kind of practice can be useful for younger learners, who will have shorter attention spans and also benefits associative performers, as it helps with the transfer of sub-routines into the full skills and develops a kinaesthesis at the end of the progressive part practice which finished practising the whole skill.

    • Word count: 469
  8. Equipment and Performance in Cross Country Running and Mountain Biking.

    when running so therefore they won’t become as damaged if you were flat shoes. Running shoes come in many different styles. When I mean different styles I mean different tread on the shoes for the different terrain you will be running on. The price on running shoes can differ o which brad you get. You can get cheap running shoes but they won’t be as good as you will need them to be. But if you look for some decent shoe you could be looking at about and least £55 and for the best or even personalised to you, you could be looking at a couple of hundred pounds.

    • Word count: 957
  9. Components of fitness tests

    The two most commonly used time period are 30 seconds and 1 minute. The test protocol is the same for both tests. Which one you do is often most dependent on which normative values you can get a hold of. Strength- Improvement: Free weights Test: Grip Dynamometer This involves the use of a Grip dynamometer, which measures the force generated by the subjects grip in one hand.

    • Word count: 420
  10. PE coursework - football

    This means the rule can be manipulated by running ahead of the last defender just before the ball is played to get a head start as most of the time you?ll be given the benefit of the doubt. It is important to see at all times where the deepest line midfielder is so you know when you are onside/offside. Strikers such as Wayne Rooney are very good at playing the offside rule and have this extra instinct of when to make their run especially when they have good chemistry with the player passing the ball.

    • Word count: 4521
  11. Sports Psychology Reseach Project - using dissociative and associative strategies for helping concentration.

    Team members gathered at the pool and set up required equipment 2. All performed personal mental skills activities in order to be prepared for the training session (see logbook for details on personal mentals skills training) 3. Team 1 then gathered in a group for a stretching session and the briefing of the training program for that day 4. The team member running that training then lead the warm up of 2 pool widths free swimming and then 2 pool widths swimming with a ball 5. The team then progressed into a dry passing drill 6.

    • Word count: 2244
  12. Local Study. Provision & Opportunities for Football in Sandwell

    However, to increase opportunity, some schools such as George Salter Academy (GSA) have created a ?B team? to accommodate the lower ability players. This gives provision to the players who many develop at a later age than others, keeping them involved within the foundation level of the pyramid. 2. Representing school at district level in the West Midlands County League is the first level of elite (figure 2). Some areas in the West Midlands no longer run district teams, for example South Birmingham (Footymag.net, 2012). This means many talented players in that area won?t have access to the next stage of the performer pathway which means they will have less chance of being spotted by a professional club if their good enough.

    • Word count: 1955
  13. Which is Better Barbells or Dumbbells?

    can be accomplished with a barbell. But as the Encyclopedia of Bodybuilding points out, most muscle groups only have one or two barbell exercises. On the other hand, dumbbells often are the best tools for performing isolation exercises. For example, while the barbell bench press is the core of your pectoral routine, you need dumbbells to perform chest flies to isolate the pectoral muscle. While the shoulder press is a huge mass creator for the deltoids using the barbell, in order to hit them directly there is no better exercise than the lateral raise with dumbbells.

    • Word count: 893

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