Explain the structure and function of the skeletal and muscular systems and their role in affecting sporting movements


The structure and functions of the skeletal system


The function of the skeletal system in divided into 5 different groups, each group is very important. Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. The 4 groups are as follows;


  1. Support

The skeletal system supports the whole of our body. The skeleton supports the body against the pull of gravity. The large bones of the lower limbs support the trunk when standing. If we did not have this support we would not be able to stand.

  1. Movement

The skeletal system allows movement; this is achieved because of the joints where the bones join. This is where the movement takes place

  1. Protection

Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull as the heart and lungs are encased by the sternum and rib cage. Also the spinal column and the nerves which run through vertebral column is protected

  1. Blood production

Blood cells are produced by the marrow located in some bones. Averages of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver.

  1. Storage of minerals

Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, build-up will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply.


      The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts:


Axial Skeleton


The axial skeleton, making up 80 of your 206 bones, encompasses all your upper body bones. It is subdivided into three groups: the skull, the vertebral-sound column, and the bony thorax-sound. Its main purposes are to protect your vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and lungs, and to provide an efficient structure to perform a variety of work.










Appendicular skeleton


The appendicular skeleton makes up 126 of your 206 bones. It refers to your arms and legs. They are called appendicular because they are attached by girdles, which bridge each with the main body; as if they had been appended after the main body was formed. These girdles give these appendages a remarkable range of movement unique from anywhere else in the body. Obviously the arms are the same allowing symmetry, and the legs are too. But ignoring size and shape, and instead focusing on joints and relative placement, your arms and legs are the same, too.








Types of bones


The types of bones that make up the skeletal system are the;










Sort bones are found in the wrist and ankle, carpals and tarsals respectively. They have no shaft, as they do not increase dramatically in size in one dimension during growth, and tend to be cuboidal in shape. They are rather like a malteser in construction, with cancellous bone in the centre and a hard outer shell of compact bone.

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Long bones are longer than they are wide, consisting of a long shaft (the ) plus two articular (joint) surfaces, called epiphyses. They are comprised mostly of compact bone, but are generally thick enough to contain considerable spongy bone and marrow in the hollow centre (the medullary cavity).  



Flat bones are thin and generally curved, with two parallel layers of compact bones sandwiching a layer of spongy bone. Most of the bones of the  are flat bones, as is the . They provide mechanical protection and also have a large surface area for muscle ...

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