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AS and A Level: Contemporary Studies

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Writing about the media in sport

  1. 1 You should recognize the 4 key roles of the media in sport : to educate, advertise, inform and entertain.
  2. 2 • Give SPECIFIC examples of each form of media. For example, transworld sport is very educational regarding different cultural sports and activities.
  3. 3 Acknowledge the advantages of the media and the powerful role they have in our culture, such as providing entertaining coverage of Olympics or big rival matches
  4. 4 Acknowledge the disadvantages of the media and the potentially counter-productive role they have, such as sensationalism regarding footballers and their relationships.
  5. 5 Acknowledge the ‘media’ as a business and in some cases, with a solely profiteering approach. However beware of over generalising and omitting recognition of the media (whether profit making or not) in providing an invaluable professional and leisure service to sports people specifically and the general population.

Writing about Outdoor and Adventurous Activities (OAA)

  1. 1 This is an area of the National Curriculum that is often avoided or done minimally – students should be able to explain the reasons for this : cost, facilities, access, risk, etc
  2. 2 The difference between real (a situation where actual harm to the participants is possible) and perceived risk (a safe situation where a feeling of thrill / fear is constructed) is often confused in essay answers.
  3. 3 Many (but not all) OAAs need to have VERY strict health & safety procedures and protocols in place. The increase in safety requirements has been as a result of tragedies such as Lyme Bay occurring. Laws have been enforced to ensure the safety of participants.
  4. 4 When writing about the benefits of OAA, make sure specific examples are given. There is a mental benefit of participation in orienteering as it is developing decision-making processes.
  5. 5 The Adventurous Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) is a key organisation that assesses the safety of activity centres and allows them to offer sessions to the public.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Outdoor and Adventurous Activities - risks, percieved and actual

    5 star(s)

    In my opinion the group's pre-trip preparations could have both increased or decreased their fear or apprehension. It may have increased or decrease it because it gives the group an insight of what they will be taking part in, this could frighten the group and because they don't know exactly what it may be like, they could perceive the risk and danger to be greater than the actual risk. It also could work the other way because when it gives an insight of the hike, they may get more excited and more confident in being able to do the hike which will decrease their perceived risk and will increase their excitement of the trip.

    • Word count: 1037
  2. Marked by a teacher

    I am going to write about technology and media in sport. Im going to describe and explain the influence and effects of the media and technology in sport.

    3 star(s)

    TV has been available from the late 1920s; television became very popular in a matter of years. Newspaper: A newspaper is a regularly scheduled publication containing news, information, and advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive. Radio: Radio was well known and used well before television, radio was so popular because you could listen to it when you were travelling somewhere and needed to know the news. The radio gives information about many different things and it means you can listen to it when you want.

    • Word count: 1055
  3. Media Bias on Steroids. A great example of media influence is the book written about steroid use in baseball. The book is titled Game of Shadows. This non-fiction book was written by two reporters from the San Francisco Chronicle.

    The first question to answer is how the media has influenced the steroid investigation. The media obviously has influenced the steroid investigation in many ways. One way that the media influences the steroid investigation is by pressuring players to admit that they have used steroids or that they knew somebody who did. They may do this through blackmail or other extreme methods. Also, the media may show the player some good reason to do it. Take Barry Bonds for example he has been hassled this past year about steroids and if he had used them.

    • Word count: 1264
  4. Local Football study - In Peterborough the first way in which people access football is through their school, either through the school lesson, school clubs or school club links.

    Peterborough Junior Alliance League Leagues Cups Under 9's - 3 Divisions Under 9 League Cup Under 10's - 3 Divisions Under 10 League Cup Under 11's - 3 Divisions Under 11 League Cup Under 12's - 3 Divisions Under 12 League Cup Under 13's - 3 Divisions Under 13 PFA Cup Under 14's - 3 Divisions Under 14 League Cup Peterborough and District Youth League Leagues Cups Under 15's 3 Divisions League Cup, Hunts cup Under 16's 3 Divisions League Cup, Hunts cup Under 18's 3 Divisions League Cup, Hunts cup I cannot be critical of these leagues because they provide good, structured competitive football for everyone and varied abilities.

    • Word count: 1009
  5. National Study. To examine the support and provision for football in England, I will be researching how the sporting structure in the country helps performers from first-level elite stage through to area, county, regional and national selection.

    3-5 years old and Academy (Boys & Girls) - Year 1,2 and 3. It only costs �2 per session. Well-renowned football clubs all around the country also hold soccer schools sessions to enhance the ability of performers of all ages. Arsenal Soccer Schools, held by Arsenal Football Club try to get children to "play the Arsenal way". By guiding players through extensive training programmes, they take time to nurture and develop youngsters since 1985 and have network centres all over the world. The techniques used are the same ones senior players from Arsenal use in the training ground, developing their technical ability.

    • Word count: 1213
  6. National study - The sporting pyramid and pathways to international level from Participation Level with football

    This sort of competition would be more structured and ordered and would play played to a higher level of football. Also the performer could be at this level because they are there to achieve something for themselves. A good example of this level of play would be regionally based competitions. The elite level of the sporting pyramid consists of those who are the best footballers in the country (and other countries) and would play in high level competitions like the premier league.

    • Word count: 1249
  7. Sports and society. I was involved in dancing since my childhood. My parents introduced me to this discipline when I was only 6 years old and since then I never stopped dancing.

    As for me, my parents were able to pay for private dance classes so I could follow my dream of becoming a professional ballroom dancer. This dream was a reality until we came to United States of America. When I came to the USA, at first it was a total culture shock. Everything that I knew in life was totally changed; the mentality, the environment, the people, even a way of communicating. After a month of adjusting in a new country, I realized that I missed dancing a lot.

    • Word count: 1038
  8. Explain the value of sport in the UK. How does sport build a safer, stronger community?

    As a keen sportsman myself I know that achieving success in sport is a huge morale boost and you thrive on that success and want to keep winning, I personally think that the will to improve and win has kept me from engaging in anti-social behaviour. Most of the friends I have in sport are not involved in anti-social behaviour because they too have the will to improve and succeed. When you see yourself or your team in the media for all the right reasons such as winning you gain respect from other people and I think that this encourages young people in your community or school to want too achieve the same success if not more.

    • Word count: 1268
  9. B-Tec Level 3. Football

    Position of feet Feet facing the direction of the ball which is forwards in most cases and also on your toes ready to move in any direction that the ball goes. Point of contact Ball hits the chest area (pectorals) and the ball and chest make contact at the bottom of the ball so that the ball is cushioned and brought down quickly and the ball stays in your control. Use of arms Arms are out by the side for balance if the jump is needed to chest the ball and the arms can also be used to hold off defenders that are behind the attacking player who is controlling the ball.

    • Word count: 1018
  10. National Study of Football Provisions in the UK

    It is at these clubs that they can be identified as having a high level of talent and may be invited to have a trial at a centre of excellence or academy. Some professional clubs will also hold development centres in some areas, these act as the bridge between club football and academy/centre of excellence football. The majority of the professional footballs clubs in the UK have scouts located in their clubs catchment areas. Those identified by professional clubs as being talented are invited to have a trial, which lasts a period of 6 weeks, those who do well will be offered a one year contract, those who struggle will continue to work at the respective clubs development centre.

    • Word count: 1266
  11. Local Study of Football Provision

    They have the support of Simon Ryan who is a Peterborough United community football coach. Cup competitions are arranged by the ESFA, the English school football association. Local Football Leagues Cups U9 3 Divisions U9 League Cup U10 3 Divisions U10 League Cup U11 3 Divisions U11 League Cup U12 3 Divisions U12 League Cup U13 3 Divisions U13 PFA Cup U14 3 Divisions U14 League Cup Peterborough has a pretty comprehensive local football system ranging from U9 to senior level. The main junior leagues in the area are the Peterborough Junior Alliance League and the Peterborough and District Youth League.

    • Word count: 1004
  12. Public, Private and Voluntary Sectors

    A proportion of these funds are given to each local authority to provide services in its local area. This is not enough money, therefore the local government will also generate further funds in the form of council tax and uniform business rate. * Council tax this is what people have to pay if you live in their area. * Uniform business rate is like council tax but for the businesses in the local area this tax is called UBR. Once they have received the funding the local authority will allocate individual sums to each facility so as to provide the best level of services to both the local community and visitors to their area.

    • Word count: 1107
  13. Extrovert and introvert how they might affect people in sporting situations

    Introverts gain energy when performing activities alone. They tend to enjoy reading, writing, watching movies at home, inventing, and designing and doing these activities in quiet, non interactive environment such as home, library, parks/gardens, and quiet coffee shops. While introverts avoid social situations with large numbers of people, they tend to enjoy intense, one-to-one or one-to-few group interactions. They tend to have small circle of very close friends, compared to the extroverts' typically larger circle of less close friends. Benefits and negatives of being an extrovert in football, rugby and tennis It tends to be more affective to be an

    • Word count: 1713
  14. Obesity in todays society

    to put exercise low on their list of priories because of other pressures in today's lifestyle but if a person just left an hour for exercises it can have a positive effect on the body and mind. Other factors may include: * poverty * poor nutrition education * lack of traditional cooking skills * poor labeling of products by both manufacturers and supermarkets * false advertising form food/drink companies Though the government has regulations for food advertising and packaging there are loop holes which food and drink companies take advantage of.

    • Word count: 1815
  15. The effects of exercise on mental health

    I hope to find studies where experiments or research has been done on both mentally well and unwell people, in order to see if there is a change in mood in both. I shall then conduct my own small experiment, by asking fifty participants to fill in a questionnaire about how exercise affects their mood. I will ask questions such as "How much exercise do you do on a normal day?" "How do you feel on a normal day?" and "How do you feel after you exercised?"

    • Word count: 1979
  16. Analyse the Current Application of monitoring and Training technology to enhance sport performance

    and heart rate increases in a linear relationship until near maximal intensities. Heart rate is easier to measure than oxygen consumption and the relationship between them has been established, however, there is one critical component - knowing your maximum heart rate. Heart rate variability describes the variations in the intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Even when the heart rate is stable, the time between consecutive beats can vary considerably. At rest, heart rate variability is larger in aerobically trained individuals than in untrained individuals. Summary For example, sometimes when athletes get that euphoric feeling after a great race they feel indestructible.

    • Word count: 1627
  17. Local and National Provision for Rugby Union

    These tasters into the 15-a-side game are widely available for anyone. It is at the bottom of the sporting pyramid and provides opportunity for success. A large chunk of grassroots funding comes from match fess with a small amount from sponsorships such as Canterbury RFC and Spitfire Ale. Schemes by the RFU are being put into place to encourage development such as the Fit for Rugby campaign and the Building for the Future campaign. The "Fit for Rugby" campaign is one attempting to encourage more government investment into the sport for increased participation at clubs and schools - encouraging schools to play at least 6 games per annum, along with coaching and officiating.

    • Word count: 1266
  18. Feedback Coursework

    Good and appropriate feedback during the cognitive phase is crucial in building a player's confidence at an early age. Too much negative criticism is more likely to put a player off a sport, and thus they won't reach the next stages of development. In the latter of the three stages, feedback is important, but not essential. Associative players need feedback, but more to improve their decision making or tactics, as the basic skills needed in the sport have become automatic. Whereas, in the autonomous phase, the person is very skilled and can make the right decision automatically. Feedback is still important in maintaining player's confidence, essential when correcting specific aspects of a skill.

    • Word count: 1450
  19. local and national provision assignment

    Junior sections for local clubs also play a vital role in introducing new players because club hockey is far better than school hockey, and it's a much better environment. Through looking at international players, most of them started hockey at the grass routes level which shows its importance. Therefore England hockey has been encouraged to focus on the development of the younger players and offering juniors a wider range of competitions and coaching opportunities. This is shown within the junior international sides where teams are varied to accommodate the younger players in order to prepare for the future, and this is spread down to grass route level as well.

    • Word count: 1154
  20. Should professional athletes be held to higher standards of accountability? For instance, there is raging controversy about steroids. Steroids have been used by athletes to gain an edge

    For example, Major League Baseball player Barry Bonds always had a petite stature. Less than ten years later Bonds became one of the most fearful and muscular player in the league. After all of the steroid allegations in the past few years, Bonds is well-known to many that he indeed did take steroids. Why is he still playing in the MLB then? I agree with the fact that the league has put harsher consequences on players who get caught using steroids, but they need to be more severe.

    • Word count: 1038
  21. What factors contribute to make a good leader and how might your style of leadership vary to be successful when involved in individual, racket and team activities?

    There was an immense pressure for him to help lead the England football team to victory. However as he failed, he resigned as captain, and is no longer on the England squad. He can make play happen but on the pitch, he does not show authority as a leader. Unlike Liverpool's captain Steven Gerrard, he shows authority and leadership when on the pitch, by communicating with his team mates whilst playing. Steven Gerrard is one of the most successful captains at Liverpool F.C because he can motivate his team to do well and win. A prime example of this is Liverpool FC vs.

    • Word count: 1763
  22. Fitts & Posner Coursework

    There are 3 stages of learning according to Fitts and Posner. They are: Cognitive v Associative v Autonomous Cognitive This is the initial stage of learning and is essential if the learner is to process successful through the other stages and is to move a stage where the skill can be performed. The cognitive stage involves formation of a mental picture of a skill. The most efficient way is from a demonstration, which allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the performance mentally. Visual guidance is one of the best ways to make others understand, and so that the person learning can see the correct method to perform the skill.

    • Word count: 1552
  23. Discuss how information processing varies between individual, team and racquet athletics.

    The effect these factors have on a performer will vary from individual, racquet and team sports. The time that you have available to process the incoming stimuli differs in each sport. For example in rugby, which is externally paced, you have a small amount of time to process the stimuli and make a decision because there are usually many defenders around you. Tennis players also have very little time to react because the ball is usually travelling at a high speed and if they don't make a decision and return the ball they will lose the point.

    • Word count: 1382
  24. Local and national provision

    With a strong classical ballet influence, in its purest technical sense, the movement is generally very fluid and ballet, although it does include the dynamic highlights and tricks of jazz dance, with isolations, kicks and leaps. Now, most styles once seen as Modern Dance are normally classified as being Contemporary Dance, Jazz Dance or sometimes, Classical Jazz or Modern Jazz (notebook. About school) In London when 4 years children go to primary school they can start practice dance. Haslemere Primary School in London has got dance lesson in evening. On Tuesday for years 3-6 and on Wednesday foe years 5-6.

    • Word count: 1582

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Analyse the effects that staging a major sporting event can have on an area.

    "As you can see from my conclusion, the question asked in this report is of a complex nature and has no simple answer. I used case studies covering a range of scales and locations in order to make as accurate a judgement as possible. However I could only use a limited number due to the length of time I had to carry out my research and compile this report. To fully investigate the issue I would need to carry out my research on a much larger scale, covering a greater time period and range of events."

  • Discuss the various systems for nurturing elite sports talent

    "In conclusion, there are many various systems for nurturing elite sports talent, some of these more successful than others. However, there are many reasons as to why some of these could be overall detrimental to a country, whether it may be because it is seen as a waste of money, or because it involves bad treatment of the children involved. On the other hand, systems for nurturing elite sports talent can be seen as beneficial because it improves an athlete's performance and gives them a much better chance of winning."

  • "Sport is precious it shouldn't be abused by commercial interests". To what extent is this true in sport today?

    "In conclusion I think that perhaps there are some aspects that make commercialisation a bad thing in sport, but I think that the good that comes out of it by far outweighs the bad. I think that sport is precious, but will not be spoiled by commercial interests. Contrary to this, I think that commercialisation makes sport appear more of an attractive career and therefore t attracts a larger amount of people to play professionally. And I think that the quality of athletes has greatly increased due to the incentives that sponsorships bring about. There could be an argument to say that this increased competition has spoiled sport, because it does incite cheating in sport in order to win. Again, using the 100m sprint final as an example. The margin for error in this race is so small, and the huge difference between the prize for second place and first place makes the race so much more competitive, that cheating is becoming more and more common. So perhaps to some extent we could say that the increased financial gain from being a professional athlete has spoiled sport to some extent."

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