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AS and A Level: Contemporary Studies
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Writing about the media in sport
- 1 You should recognize the 4 key roles of the media in sport : to educate, advertise, inform and entertain.
- 2 • Give SPECIFIC examples of each form of media. For example, transworld sport is very educational regarding different cultural sports and activities.
- 3 Acknowledge the advantages of the media and the powerful role they have in our culture, such as providing entertaining coverage of Olympics or big rival matches
- 4 Acknowledge the disadvantages of the media and the potentially counter-productive role they have, such as sensationalism regarding footballers and their relationships.
- 5 Acknowledge the ‘media’ as a business and in some cases, with a solely profiteering approach. However beware of over generalising and omitting recognition of the media (whether profit making or not) in providing an invaluable professional and leisure service to sports people specifically and the general population.
Writing about Outdoor and Adventurous Activities (OAA)
- 1 This is an area of the National Curriculum that is often avoided or done minimally – students should be able to explain the reasons for this : cost, facilities, access, risk, etc
- 2 The difference between real (a situation where actual harm to the participants is possible) and perceived risk (a safe situation where a feeling of thrill / fear is constructed) is often confused in essay answers.
- 3 Many (but not all) OAAs need to have VERY strict health & safety procedures and protocols in place. The increase in safety requirements has been as a result of tragedies such as Lyme Bay occurring. Laws have been enforced to ensure the safety of participants.
- 4 When writing about the benefits of OAA, make sure specific examples are given. There is a mental benefit of participation in orienteering as it is developing decision-making processes.
- 5 The Adventurous Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) is a key organisation that assesses the safety of activity centres and allows them to offer sessions to the public.
Another example, if less distinct, is that of ticket allocation to England International Rugby matches. Tickets will only be sold to members of affiliated rugby clubs, and do not go on sale to the general public. Whilst this is much less harsh than some discrimination in sport, it helps to further strengthen the sub-culture of rugby football and prevent those from outside gaining access. Access is a key issue when we talk about inequity. Access to participation, be it spectating or performing, is what needs to be equal across the spectrum of social groups in order for equity in sport to be achieved.
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Select a Sports Organisation you are familiar with or interested in (from the public, voluntary or private sector). Collect data to identify: The organisation's market niche, Nature of its environment, Funding/financial arrangements.
is fairly fluid. There is also the financial situation which over the past 20 years in particular has been volatile to say the least. The landscape has changed significantly over recent years, perhaps most notably at youth level. With the recent introduction of football academies at many professional clubs, young players with the ability and determination to succeed at the highest level have been able to be educated to a standard that had not been seen in this country before, both on the pitch and in the classroom.
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In many circumstances, members of a team will be required to appear in a different manner if the team's complete impression is to be acceptable.2 One example that Goffman uses from Charles Johnson may have been suitable for the 1950's, but certainly would not today: "When few whites are in the region, a Negro may call his white fellow worker by his first name, but when other whites approach it is understood that mistering will be reintroduced."3 This example takes place in a time when African-Americans did not have the same civil rights as Caucasians, but with change comes new examples where his theory still holds true.
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Research, analyse and critically examine the (European Union's) European Year of Education through Sport 2004, illustrating your answer with examples from European countries.
Amongst other revelations of a similar trend it is notable that the 2 highest responses when asked if the EU should do more to promote education through sport were those of Greece (90% said yes) and Portugal (85%). These of course will be the 2 main focal points for sporting excellence in 2004; hosting the Olympic Games and the European Football Championships respectively. It is clear that the officials of the European Union share the belief that the prominent values and health benefits that can be garnered from education through sport are desirable.
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The crowd also provide a market for refreshments, programmes and other souvenirs which creates more jobs. The commercial side of football secures millions of pounds in retail, for example sales of replica kits in the UK alones is thought to be around �200 million. But this is also an example of the exploitation of the 'beautiful game', as prices are marked up 200% on production costs. Hockey Hockey has a completely different story to tell. There is no real commercial aspect to the game. The vast majority of the people who follow hockey are hockey players themselves and their main interest in the sport is participation.
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* The Football Association works to a comprehensive set of Memoranda and Procedural Guidelines. There is a very tight set of Guidelines, Rules and Regulations covering this important area. In addition to this, guidelines regarding disciplinary sanctions for offending players have been formulated. * The FA Doping Control Programme is carried out in conjunction with the UK Sports Council Doping Control Unit. * It is important to have an independent outside body rather than totally control sample collection and selection of games as the governing body. * All matches, training sessions and players are randomly selected for testing and at each visit two or three Independent Sampling Officers (ISO's)
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With specific sports in selected areas i.e. adventure sports in the Lake District and water sports on the Solent, which is a part of the channel between the Isle of Wight and the main land of England. Patterns of employment have changed with more flexible working styles. Making more leisure time available enabling people to visit the gym even in lunch breaks. Also in employment we have achieved relative prosperity or wealth through better wages. Consumption goes hand in hand with this newfound prosperity with leisure shopping and materialism becoming major factors of life in the twenty-first century.
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The Council meets about six times a year to consider major policy issues, as well as to approve proposals put forward by committee. Major business, strategic and commercial decisions are taken by the Main Board, a body of 12, established in December 1999 to make the decision-making process more streamlined. Members of the Main Board (six from the professional game and six from the national game) are the non-executive directors of The FA. The Football Administration and Refereeing department provides four main administrative services to the game: * Competitions - runs, co-ordinates and administers seven competitions from The FA Cup to The FA Sunday Cup.
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pounds a week when an average hard working person wouldn't earn that in two years and the footballers get this money for doing something they enjoy. Another reason, and most people would agree with this point is that players get paid insanely high wages just so they can kick a piece of leather around on some grass. Footballs no longer about enjoying the beautiful game but about sponsorships and extremely high wages. A lot of people would like to see their wages cut or like to send a football star out to do an honest days work to see if they would survive On the other hand, money is a means of living it's a necessity.
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Tabloids usually focus on a few sports that are usually the most popular sports such as football and cricket. The storeys in tabloids are usually more about the action off of the pitch rather than the game itself. Tabloids sensationalize sport by putting more emphasis on the stories behind the game instead of the actual game itself. They pay more attention to the private lives of the players rather than there performance. Action and mishaps tend to be focused on, as they are more entertaining for the readers. For example at the moment the tabloids are focusing more on what happened in the tunnel at Old Trafford after the match between Arsenal and Manchester United rather than the game itself.
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Every team in every league will have a sponsor whose name will appear on their strip. That sponsor will pay the club for the rights to have their name on the shirt. In the long run it is the sponsor who will benefit as every time the team play their company will be advertised hopefully increasing that companies profit margin. The sponsor of the team is almost as known as the actually team, for example if I was to say Liverpool Football Club you would associate that team with Carlsberg or Chelsea who are sponsored by Emirates.
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Football also encourages children to mix ranging from ethnic backgrounds to talent it also develops a leadership and team player qualities. Therefore there is a tremendous amount of provision for footballers at this young age. However there is the on going battle about school fields being sold for profit, especially in built up area's in London. But as a result many people fund schools providing football equipment, in particular Mc Donald's have an especially unique idea McDonald's pledged to give 1,000 footballs to schools in Manchester for every goal the Red Devils scored, and a 1,000 in London for every goal the Gunners scored in the Community Shield.
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There is a similar set-up with many other clubs in Cornwall, on the following page there is a map of all the courts in Cornwall, many are clubs and many have thriving junior sections as well. As you can see from the map that there are a great number of courts in Cornwall and many are open to the public and so in most places the general public can play and so generally the provision is good in Cornwall. National Level- England Squash itself is funded by Sport England National Lottery grants and by subscriptions paid from members.
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Soon after golf was invented, King James II banned the sport but the ban was lifted in 1470. Golf soon started to take shape and throughout the 16th century, it became one of the most popular sports of its time. This created a demand for golf courses. The first basic course was at Perth, shortly followed by Carnoustie. Carnoustie, founded in 1527 as a basic golf course, has since been developed by progression in the game. This course has matured into a championship course, known for its immaculate design and expert green-keepers.
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The sport I am going to be looking at is Rugby union, as this is a sport I have played for many years, and have an interest in the way the sport has changed.
Local club/area I live in Brackley in South Northants; we are surrounded by Buckingham, Banbury, and Towcester. There are many clubs in the local area, most of these are male clubs but there is one female club in Buckingham. I play for Buckingham RUFC U17. Most clubs all have youth and senior teams, most of the children who start of in the youth teams work there way up into the seniors. This is something the RFU are trying to promote through their Community Rugby Programme.
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With the playoffs on the line, the games are getting more passionate and personal than the start of the season. Four different suspensions were handed out to players, where they are needed most before the playoffs. Hockey is becoming more personal and getting more violent where players are losing respect for each other. On March 8, 2004, the world was shocked when Vancouver Canucks player Todd Bertuzzi sucker punched Colorado's Steve Moore from behind. The NHL suspended Bertuzzi for the remaining 13 games of the regular season and the playoffs.
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At first in a fight, it is only pushing around but when a full throttle punch is applied serious damage is done to the brain. The skull holds the brain and supports it not to move rapidly. So when a force as a heavy punch is used, the brain starts eroding at the brain cells, they get killed, an amount of cells lost is too much for the brain tissue to grow back so it continues to erode. Sometimes boxers don't realise this and therefore continue to endanger their own lives.
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For example I played for Norseman FC for 10 years from under 7`s - under 17`s. Norseman is Located in Enfield, and I played in the Cheshunt League. In the cheshunt league there were 3 leagues; 2nd division, 1st division and Premier, each with about 10+ teams. Cheshunt isn't the only league to play in, there are many more in Enfield, e.g. Enfield district league and Waltham forest league. Grassroots: There are many clubs in Enfield for women, men, boys and girls to start playing football.
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However the educational 'effect' of sport has not been confined to educational institutes. It has been used to justify participation of all levels of society from community youth leagues to professional clubs. To this day, sport maintains a moral component, and individual participation in it is seen as worthwhile, an uplifting experience. Even professional athletes carry the moral baggage of sport genesis. They are supposed to be role models for youth, and their behaviour is often judged against a standard of morality rarely applied to other representatives of the entertainment industry such as film stars or rock musicians.
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A good coach is anything from a shoulder to cry on to a driving force behind a good performance. The United Kingdom Coaching Strategy describes the role of the coach as one which "enables the athlete to achieve levels of performance to a degree that may not have been possible if left to his/her own endeavours" Coaches like athletes are all different and individual in the way they do there jobs in sport. Every coaches aim is the same, to do there best for there athlete so they in turn can give there best performance, but there style and the way that they seek to achieve there goal is different.
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Promotion The main source of promotion will be the website. I have designed and made the website, just need web space and domain name for it. It will have all relevant information on it to do with the tourney, entry, results, schedule etc. Another source of promotion will be in paintball magazines like PGI and also internet ads on websites like walkonzone.com A questionnaire has been produced for marketing reason to work out if firstly the staff will work for that kind of money.
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All will require either refurbishment or replacement. London is the biggest city in Western Europe and has a population in excess of seven million people. However it has two 50m pools of which one has six lanes and the other requires major refurbishment. The ASA is divided in to districts, to which all clubs affiliate. My club is Millfield, which is affiliated to the Western district. Swimming development at lower levels is carried out through county associations. Here it is the Somerset Amateur Swimming Association (SASA).
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They have also reduced the amount of 11-a-side games very young players compete in. There is however a very significant amount of work delegated to the County Football Associations, including ?1.2million that went to developing coaching and educational programmes. The provision for football in this area is good with many football pitches, which are marked and also have changing rooms. Good examples of this are Kimber road, Wandsworth common and Haydens road playing fields. However in other areas the pitches are not so well kept, and are rarely remarked especially during the winter months, this problem is highlighted by the Clapham common playing fields.
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'Critically discuss the key considerations when selecting appropriate coaching styles in PE and Youth Sport, with particular reference to the learning outcomes'.
When developing young performers, it is essential to understand the basic 'ingredients' for successful learning. In Football and ideal session would contain the following elements: * Repetition * Fun & Enjoyment * Small-sided games * Praise & positive reinforcement * Coaching * Demonstration (Ford, 1999) These above elements are suitable for young people, it is important to remember that when young people in PE or Sport are in a session, they learn much better when they are having fun. Positive feedback and 'brief' advice are necessary, up to a limit so that they understand and take in information, and not so that there is too much to remember then they would forget most of the information received.
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'Sport in Britain has been used by all three Celtic nations, as a means of sustaining their individual identities. Choose one nation and critically evaluate the manner in which this has been achieved'.
Football was first played in England centuries ago but was quickly taken up by Scots. The matches against England played and integeral part in maintaining Scotland's national identity. The importance of football in the lives of Scotsmen is indicated by the number who turn to the sports pages of newspapers before they have even read the headlines on the front pages. Different accounts of the 16th century refer to some of the first games of football between Scotland and England.
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