Describing and Explaining the Components of Fitness. Fitness and fitness testing
Jean Carlo Gonzales
Assignment 2: Describing and Explaining the Components of Fitness.
Fitness and fitness testing
Fitness testing plays an important role in sport and also in everyday life. The sportsperson or non sport person is tested for different reasons such as; if the sportsperson is making any progression, if reversibility is taking place, Assesses strengths and weaknesses, if they are fit with the population norms, to find out their current fitness and tests effectives of training programmes. To test fitness you need to understand what the term fitness really is. Fitness is described in Microsoft Encarta reference library 2004 as:
“The ability of the human body to function with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to engage in leisure activities, and to meet physical stresses.”
The Components of Fitness
The components of fitness are divided into two groups which are the skill related and the health related. Health related means how much you can exceed with your body in terms of health. For example cardio vascular depends how much your body can do and it also aids to prevent any disease like cardio vascular disease which it’s good for your own health. In the other hand skill related skills help you be better in a certain sport, for example speed and agility is needed to be a good player in football. Overall health and skill make the components of fitness which makes you exercise or succeed in sports.
Skill related fitness:
Health related fitness:
Difference Methods of Fitness Testing:
A variety of tests are put in place to test the fitness components. They can be field based fitness tests which is simple because all you need is the comfort of your house, a field or an empty space and inexpensive field tests equipment or lab based fitness test which is more complicated because you would need scientific resources to conduct the test appropriate. These sorts of tests provide the trainers, coaches and athletes with meaningful information about what’s going fine or what area needs progress.
Testing Components of Fitness
Flexibility what it is: is the measure of free movement in person’s joints .This is especially needed for gymnast? However the range depends on the ligaments and muscles surrounding the joint, shape of the articulating surfaces and contact between tissue masses of adjacent segments. Flexibility can change, the change occurs when muscle and connective tissue adapt to range of motion frequently used and if full ranged is not used often then muscle and connective tissues tend to shorten. We can also decline in flexibility when inactivity takes place and inappropriate activity.
Sit and reach:
The sit and reach test was made for the purpose to measure flexibility in the lower back and hamstrings. This test is a field based test because is so simple to set up and conduct, it only needs a box, ruler and you to sit down.
The Sit and Reach Test Procedure
-Sitting on the floor with legs out making sure that the knees don’t bend.
-Place your feet flat against the box, it has to bear footed.
-The tester needs to make sure to keep the knees straight.
-Palms facing down the person stretch and reach as far as tip of the finger can go and then tester records the measurement. There shouldn’t be no finger movements just fingers straight.
-After three turns the fourth is held for 2 seconds and recorded
Normative table of the sit and reach test
The normative table has being created for the purpose for the sportsperson or non-sport person to check in what category he/she are in. The more your hand reaches the measurement the higher rating you will get. For example if a man gets 21 then he is considered excellent than a man that scores -5 would be considered only fair.
Advantages of the sit and reach test
The sit and reach test has many advantages. Is a really common test and is practiced around many countries, simply because it is really easy to assemble and execute. It only requires a box and someone that is willing to do it. The test can be performed under a minute which comparison to other test such as the geniometer test that takes much longer and especially it has plenty of data available for comparison.
Disadvantages of the sit and reach test
The sit and reach test also comes with a few disadvantages. One major concern is that it only measures flexibility in the region of the lower back and hamstrings, so meaning it cannot provide an accurate score for overall flexibility. Other negatives about the sit and reach test is that dissimilarity in arms, legs trunk may mislead information and simply because some people may not have access to a sit and reach box available for testing.
Alternative test for flexibility
Another test of flexibility involves the use of a geniometer to measure the range of motion at a joint. The “head” of the goniometer is placed at the axis of rotation of a joint while the arms are aligned longitudinally with the bone. A measuring in degrees can be taken afterwards by the tester.One positive about the geniometer than the sit and reach is that if you have a neck or back problem the sit and reach would be out of the question.
Muscular strength is used in everyday life such as picking up shopping bags, moving things, carrying your child ect.Muscular strength is defined as “the ability of a specific muscle or muscle group to exert a force in a single maximal contraction” by Barker et al 2004.Muscular strength has many benefits such as helps maintain good posture in old age, avoid injuries, helps maintain independent lifestyle such as moving heavy objects from place to place and aids coordination while moving e.g. running in football. Strength can be measured with the use of dynamometers which give an objective measure of the force generated within various muscles or muscle group
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Testing Muscular strength
The handgrip dynamometer test is the easiest test to administer. The test measures the grip strength generated by the muscles in the forearm. The strength in your forearm muscle has important functions such as throwing, catching and lifting.
-Hold the hand grip in the hand to be tested
-The elbow and forearm should be at a 90 degree angle
-With elbow alongside the body
-The dynamometer is held with four fingers and then should be squeeze for the duration of 5 seconds
-Tester then records the number shown on the dynamometer
Normative table of handgrip dynamometer
The normative table has being created for the purpose of the sport-person and non-sport person to check in what category he/she is and if they need improving to be classified super. The more you exert force in the grip the higher number you will get. For example if a women gets the number 35 it means she is excellent in rating than a man that scores the same would be very poor this is because men have a slight advantage in strength than women.
Normative Table of the Hand Grip Test
Advantages of the Handgrip dynamometer test
The handgrip test has many advantages. The handgrip dynamometer is a frequent test that is practiced nearly everywhere. The reason for the popularity is that this test only requires one object which is the handgrip dynameter.It is also really easy to understand the correct procedure of the test and it generates quick amounts of data.
Disadvantages of the Handgrip dynamometer test
The handgrip test might be really easy to execute, understand and instruct but it has some negative points to take into consideration. The test only indicates the strength of the forearm muscles which most people ignore the training of forearm muscles. When executing the test you need to make sure to adjust the dynamometer to your hand size, if this is ignored it may lead to wrong results and forearm muscles can easily fatigue so therefore its best to try a first or second time.
Alternative test for strength
Another common test of strength is the one repetition maximum test (1RM test).This assesses the maximal force a subject can lift in one repetition using weights.
Advantages using the 1RM test
-Weight training equipment is easily to test.
-Just go straight to the gym
-Quick and easy
Disadvantages using the 1RM test
-When performing maximal lifts the threat of injury is more likely to happen e.g. Dislocation of shoulder when doing bench pressing
-It can be difficult to isolate individual muscles.
Muscular endurance is used in everyday life such as carrying the shopping bags, cleaning windows, going upstairs and so on. Is how much an individual can use his muscles for a long period of time without getting tired Muscular endurance is defined as “a specific muscle or muscle group making repeated contraction over a significant period of time” cited in journal of sport medicine 2008 from Cohan 2002.Muscular endurance is also important for most sports such as football when playing for the whole 90 minutes you would need to have muscular endurance to keep in the pace of the game, Tennis when you need to run around the court for sometimes more than four hours and most of the sports that you would need to use your muscles for a long period of time.
Testing Muscular endurance
The one-minute sit up test is one of the most common test and easy to do practically anywhere. The one-minute sit up test is test of muscular endurance in the abdominal and hip flexor area.
*Note if there is any back problems the test should be adjusted or changed
- lay on a gym mat or cushioned floor
- Have knees bent and feet flat on the floor
- Hands behind your head or rest you’re your hands on your thighs
- Then elevate your body using your abdominals then seat up so that you are vertical with the floor and go back down to the floor and repeat
The normative table has been created for the purpose for the sport-person or non-sport person to check in what category their number of sit up means and if they need some improving to do. The more sit ups you achieve less than one minute the more chance the normative table will put you high. For example if a 19 year old achieve 44 he would be put as above average but it a 38 year old man gets the same score he will be classified as high because the normative table considers the Age and sex of the individual.
(Adapted from Franklin, 2000)
(Adapted from Franklin, 2000)
Advantages of the One-minute sit up test
The one-minute sit up is a test that is used everywhere including in prestigious training camps of the army, royal navy and S.A.S.It is a quick test that only requires you to lay in the floor and in a correct manner using your abdominal muscles and push yourself up. The army and other public sectors use it because large groups can participate in the test at once. There is no major equipment just a padded floor or mat and it’s so flexible that it can be done in most places e.g. at home, at the gym, on the field.
Disadvantages of the One minute sit up test
The one-minute test may be popular in testing muscular endurance but has some disadvantages. Any incorrect, posture may result in inaccurate results, this issue is always done by people resulting in scores that are high but inaccurate because using your shoulders and arms to assist you to elevate upwards is considered cheating. The sit up test cannot proceed if the stomach is full, also before attempting the tes if there is any back problems with the performer the test cannot proceed and needs to be changed for another test.
Alternative way to test muscular endurance
Another common test to test muscular endurance is the 1 minute press up test. This is the same as the 1 minute sit up but instead of testing your abdominal area and hip flexor it testes your chest, tricep and shoulder muscles for endurance.
-Lie on the mat, hands shoulder width apart & fully extend the arms
-Lower the body until the elbows reach 90°
-Return to the starting position with the arms fully extended
-The push up action is to be continuous with no rest
-After one minute the tester records the number of push ups
Balanced is defined as:
“The ability to maintain stability whilst performing movements” (Broney, 2008)
Balance testing is often forgotten because of its unpopularity or underestimated towards sports. However balance is equally important as muscular strength or flexibility because it’s needed in everyday life. There are two types of balance static balance used when doing a handstand and dynamic balance used when running with a ball in football. We might not notice it but we use balance in many occasions such as standing up on a bus for a long journey, walking in heels, weight training and so on. Balance is also important for sport-people because nearly every sport uses balance such as, when running with the ball in football, dribbling in basketball, responding in tennis and especially in gymnastic.
The stalk stands balance test, checks and testes a individuals ability to balance on the ball of the foot. The test is a field based test so it needs a stop watch, flat surface and a tester.
*Note the stalk stand test allows one practice test
-Remove shoes and place hands on hips
-Place non supporting foot on the inside of supporting leg at the knee
-Raise heel of ground-then balance on the ball of the foot
-Start stop watch for one minute-stop the test if: hands come off hips supporting leg moved, leg comes away from knee or heel touches the floor
Stalk Test-Normative table
The normative table has been created for the sport-person or non sport person to check in what category their results fall in to. The gender is not an issue when it comes to a stork test. However proportion weight in the upper body and lower body may matter when doing a balance test.
The stalk test has many advantages. Its is so simple to comprehend because it only requires you to stand in one foot and maintain your balance. Another advantage is that only a stop watch is required which means it can be done practically anywhere for example at home, the gym or college.
The stalk test has advantages but also has some diasadvantages.If the tester has the lack of experience the administration of the test and scores may be wrong. This test is so easy to just cheat; for example the tester is distracted so the performer puts his balancing feet on the floor to rest.
Aerobic capacity what is it: is known as stamina or aerobic endurance. Its one of the most important component because it’s needed to be physically fit and prevents illness such as cardiovascular diseases. Aerobic endurance it’s needed in most sports that involve running and moving about such as football, boxing, tennis, swimming, marathon and so on. It’s defined as “The ability of the cardio-respiratory system to supply the exercising muscle with oxygen to maintain the aerobic exercise for a long period of time” (Barker et al, 2004).
Testing Aerobic capacity
The multi-stage test was created at the University of Loughborough and its known most as the “Bleep test”. The multi-stage test will give the individual an estimation of their VO2 max which is measure of your aerobic fitness. This is a progressive test so it starts off easily and then it gets increasingly difficult. Its a field based test so the only equipment needed is 20m track (alternative a flat non-slippery surface), NCF cassette tape or cd, Tape player or cd player, tape measure and marking cones.
-Mark out length of 20 metres with cones
-start the tape and the individual or individuals run when the first bleep sounds. They will run the 20 metres before the consecutive bleep sounds.
-when the consecutive bleep sounds they have to turn around and run back
-They continue to do this and the time between the bleeps get shorter and shorter so they have to run faster and faster
-if the individual or individuals fail to get to the other end before the bleep on three consecutive occasions then they have to drop out of the test
-Lastly record at what point the individual dropped out and compare it to the normative table
Multi-stage test normative table
The multi-stage normative table has been created for the purpose to evaluate results. The individual can check in what category they are in and may be helpful when the individual wants progression.
Advantages of the multi-stage test
Large groups can be test at once the aerobic endurance test has so many advantages that’s why its one of the leading tests for aerobic endurance. The test can be done with large groups so it saves plenty of time. The test is so efficient that not only it saves time but its low budget aswell.Another positive side to the test is that results can be evaluated by referring to published tables meaning you can work for progression in the long term.
Disadvantages of the multi-stage test
The aerobic endurance is a popular test, but it has some negatives about it. This test may favour runners but swimmers for example may not perform as well as they might in a swimming pool, this is because runners have c.v but also muscular endurance in the legs and core muscles unlike swimmers that they have upper body. Is vital to have muscular endurance in the leg muscle groups in order to perform in the bleep test. Other negatives is that the motivation can have a major effect in the impact of the test and the set up of the tester may be incorrect ; for example the length may be inaccurate resulting in higher scores but incorrect procedure of the test.
Power can be described as an explosive strength, the ability to exert a large force over a little period of time for example when jumping as high as possible or throwing a medicine ball as strong and fast as possible. Power can be used in many sports which include:
Athletics - The legs and arms of the athlete need power to sprint as fast as
Weight-Lifting – You need power in the arms and chest to lift heavy weights when
Doing bench-pressing or legs and gluteus when squatting heavy
Vertical jump test
The vertical jump is a test of power with the intent to see how high an individual can jump. The vertical jump test needs the following equipment: a ceiling higher than an Individual can jump a measuring tape or measured wall chalk.
- Person stands side onto the wall
- Reaches up and marks the wall
- Then stands away from the wall and jumps as high as possible and marks the wall
- Distance between marks are examined
- Three attempts but the best recorded
Vertical jump normative table
The normative table has been created for the purpose of the individuals to compare the results and know what rating their current scores fall into.
Advantage of vertical jump test
The vertical jump test is so simple to do but that’s not the only positive point about it. The test is so practical that it can be done anywhere for example sports hall, squash court and places that have high ceilings. The test requires little equipment and can be done in less than a minute.
Disadvantages of vertical jump test
The vertical jump test has some disadvantages about it. The test only measures leg power which individual that have good power in legs like rugby player, football and basketball players may benefit from it. Other people that less power in legs than arms are boxers, tennis players and weightlifters. The weight proportion of body counts for example a body builder would find it hard because of his/her upper body weight weighing more than lower legs resulting in low scores. The individuals with any leg problems can’t proceed and may change to another power test such as the medicine ball throw and proportions of the subject’s arms for example longer arms may have an advantage over subjects with shorter arms.
Speed is needed in many activities such as sprinting, vaulting in gymnastics or fast bowing in cricket. However, speed is not simply concerned at which the rate a person can move his/her body from point A to point B. Nevertheless it will be needed when running down the wing in football, other sports use speed such as when throwing the javelin. Fast twitch fibres tend to be beneficial in sports where speed is essential, since they release energy for muscular contraction very quickly.
30 m test
The 30 m sprint is the simplest way to measure the speed of an individual. The tester marks out the 30 m on a non-slip surface and the individual has to sprint as hard as he/she physically can. Equipment needed for the 30 m test include a marker, measuring tape and a stop-watch.
- Tester measures the 30m track
- Marks out the finishing line
- The subject prepares in a sprinting position
- The individual waits until the tester signals go
- Once the tester signals to go, the individual sprints as fast as he/she can.
- Tester records time
30 m test normative table
The normative table of the 30m test has been created for the purpose of the individual to compare his/her results to the normative table. This can be useful if the individual wants to progress to a higher rating.
Advantages of 30m sprint
The 30m sprint has some advantages over other speed tests. Little equipment is required, it only requires marker, measuring tape and a stop-watch which makes this a really low-budget test to do. The test is so easy to comprehend because it only needs the individual to run straight forward so there’s nothing complicated about it. The 30 metres can be accomplished at around 4-9 seconds, making this test a time saver for everyone
Disadvantages of 30 m sprint
The test may be a quick and straightforward test but the wrong time of pressing the stop button in the stop watch may decrease or increase the score of the subject resulting in misguide results. If the weather is bad then the running surface may affect the performance of the subject, most probably making them slower. A good negative point about this test is that is does not test the speed of individual body parts.
Agility is required in a range of sporting activities for tumbling in gymnastics to retrieving balls in volleyball. Although we can improve our agility by working on it.
The Illinois agility run
The Illinois agility run has been created for the purpose of an individual to see howagile he/she is. The equipment needed for the test is tape measure, cones and stop watch.
- The subject lies on the floor at the start position
- On the command “go” the subject gets on their feet
- Sprints as fast as possible around the course
- The tester records the results
The normative table of the Illinois run test has been created of an individual to see in what category they fall into and if they need any improving to do.
Advantages of the Illinois agility run test
The Illinois agility run test is simple to set up because it only requires cones to be set up and a tape measurement which everything can be done under 2 minutes. This test is widely used test in football training camps and other sports, because it has easily accessible rating.
Disadvantages of the Illinois agility run test
The validity of the test could be questioned as agility is influenced by other factors such as speed, balance and coordination. The test is not specified to some sports for example in hockey the player must be agile while using the stick to control the ball. Another negative point is that the weight of an individual may affect their agility for example when getting up from the starting position.
Reaction can be defined as:
“The time taken to initiate a response to a given stimulus” (sport and P.E a complete guide to advanced level of study).Reaction is used in many sports for example ,in responding to a serve in tennis ,responding to a gun in athletics and when playing as a keeper in football good reaction is needed to make saves. Reaction time can be improved through training.
The stick drop test
Some experts might say that the best way to test reaction time is by measuring by a computer program but the easiest way to measure reaction time of an individual is by doing the stick drop test. The test only needs a standard size rule and a partner to drop the ruler so you can grab it in time
-The tester holds a ruler in front of you
-The subject places the index finger and thumbs either side of the 50cm calibration without touching the ruler
-Without any warning the tester must drop the ruler at any time
-Subject must quickly catch it the finger and thumb
-Tester records the calibration at the point the index finger lies.
Advantages of the stick-drop test
One of the advantages of the stick drop test is that all the equipment that you need to perform the test is a standard ruler. The test is easy to follow and comprehend so even children can attempt the test and you can try it many times because unlike other tests you won’t get fatigued.
Disadvantages of the stick-drop test
The test only measures visual reaction time. The relevance of a stick drop test to sporting activity is questionable because sporting activities like running would need to practice other reaction test in order to react efficient to the gunshot.
Body composition is simplified as the distribution of muscle and fat in the body. Body composition can be defined as “The components parts of the body in terms of the relative amounts of body fat compared to lean body mass” (Sport and P.E a complete guide to advanced level of study).Body composition has an important role in individuals that are involved with sports and about their wellbeing. To much body fat can lead to obesity and cardio vascular diseases. For the sport-person high body fat can result in a reduction in muscle efficiency and more use in energy since more weight requires more energy to move around.
Body mass index
The most common test to measure the body fat of an individual is the BMI test. The body mass index is calculated by measuring the body mass of the subject (weight in kilograms) divided by the height (in metres) of the individual.
Weight in kg
Height in metres
Advantages of BMI TEST
The test is done worldwide including in hospitals, scientific labs and other professional places. Just simply because it requires testing the individual using maths.Theres no equipment needed if the subject knows his correct height and weight. The test can be done in an instant if the subject provides you’re with his correct height and weight.
Disadvantages of BMI test
The bad points of the B.M.I is that if someone has to much muscle mass it can misguide the results meaning the individual can be really fit and muscular but in the normative table he/she will fall into unfit. Some subjects may lie about their true weight or height resulting in misguide results.Another negative point is that it doesn’t measure the body fat of specific muscle groups.