Externally paced skills: the environment, which may include opponents, controls the rate of performing the skill. The performer must pay attention to external events in order to control his/her rate of movement. These skills involve reaction, and are usually open skills. For example in football the players must time his actions with the actions of other players and the football
Individual skills are those performed in isolation. For example a football player warming up to get on the pitch
Coactive skills are those performed at the same time as others but without direct confrontation. For example a penalty taker taking the kick and the goalkeeper moves to save the ball.
Interactive skills are those performed where other performers are directly involved. For example in football two players running to get the ball.
Ability is something that you are born with. They are the building blocks of sport and without them you will never be able to develop a skill fully. An example of ability in an individual sport is marathon runners need and requires a lot of ability. To complete the ace at high level runners need a good combination of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.
Technique: to perform a particular skill in sport, you must learn the required technique. In order to learn the technique we must have the necessary abilities. An example of a technique in a team sport is in football when a footballer carries out a volley. His body has to be in a certain position to carry out the volley and also his eyes must constantly be on the ball to execute a perfect volley.
There is a difference between skill, ability and technique. A skill is something that is learned over a period of time and to master the kill it requires consistency, accuracy, control, fluidity and an intention. In football this could be agility and accuracy, a footballer passing the ball accurately to his team mate and being able to change the direction of your body quickly and precisely in order to get away from your opponent. Ability is something natural and something you are born with. In athletics a 10m sprinter would have the ability to run fast. Their muscles would have the ability to perform fast, rapid and powerful movement. Technique is something that is learned but you must have the necessary abilities to carry it out perfectly. For example a football player taking a volley must have the correct body composure and also good coordination in order for it to be a text book volley. For optimal performance you first need the ability to carry it out, ten you need the correct skill and lastly you need the perfect technique. If you can achieve all of these it will help you perform best at your sport.
Team sport – football
The team sport that I am going to be looking at is football.
Component of fitness that is required in football is:
Agility – footballers need the ability to be able to change the position of there body quickly and precisely in order to get away from there opponents.
Power – this is required when the player is going to take a shot. The player needs to get as much power possible in one kick so that the ball has the power and speed to beat the goalkeeper.
Speed – is required by a football as they will need to run fast to get away from there opponent or to chase the ball down.
Co-ordination – is essential especially for goal keeps as they will need good hand eye coordination when catching or more importantly saving the ball.
Reaction time – is the time it takes for the keeper to initiate a muscular movement to a given signal or stimulus e.g. a player taking a penalty.
The component of fitness that I am going to focus on for football is agility. A fixed practice to improve agility is using an agility ladder. The players line up behind the agility ladder. The player must go through the agility ladder as fast as possible and must not touch the rings. The knees should be high whilst going through the agility ladder. Once they have got to the other side of the agility ladder. There will be a goalkeeper in the goal. A ball will be rolled to the player he must shoot at the goal with power and accuracy trying to beat the goalkeeper and score. Then there will be another agility ladder going the opposite way back to the original side the player started from. He must go through the agility back to the other side and repeat the practice.
Individual sport – athletics – 100 m sprinters
Reaction time – the time it takes to move in response to a stimulus. This is considered when the sprinter, at the start of a 100m race, reacts to the starter’s gun
Anaerobic endurance – the length of time that we can exercise at a high intensity whilst tolerating increasing levels of lactic acid. This happens during the course of the race.
Speed – the ability to move the whole body or body part quickly. This is essential when participating in a 100m sprint otherwise the chances of winning are low.
Power – the combination of speed and strength. This is needed when pushing off the starting blocks to get a better start.
The component of fitness that I am going to focus on is power. The devised practice that I am going to use for the 100m sprinter is plyometrics. This is a fixed practice where the athlete would bound from different height boxes in order to improve their leg power. The practice is called ‘Jump to box’ The athlete will stand facing box with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart. The lower body into a semi-squat position and immediately jump onto box. The athlete should not hold a squat position before jumping up. The feet should land softly on box. They should step back down (not jump back down) and repeat the practice. Jump to Box
For a variable practice as there are not many for this component of fitness I would combine it with reaction time. I would do this by having three athletes of the same ability face each other in a 20m sprint. This is just to practice the start of the race. By doing this it would apply more pressure on the athlete and in turn would enhance the power applied.
Racket sport – tennis
Power – combination of speed and strength to serve and smash the ball
Reaction time – the time it takes to respond to the ball
The component on fitness I will focus on is reaction time as quick times are required to be successful at the game. A fixed practice that can be useful is to have the tennis player crouch down and a feeder hold an object at any length standing on the bench. The feeder drops the object and the player’s job is to catch it.
A variable practice could be training with an opponent who feeds the ball at different speed and directions so the player has to react quickly to this open and externally paced skill.
I believe that the practices that I have given for team, racket and individual sport are relevant and they will help improve the overall fitness and also improve there skills and allow the performers to perform better at their sports. Also the components of fitness I have chosen to train are relevant to the sport they are training for and will help them improve and again help them perform better at the sport there training for. If I could I would change my training plans by making sure that they all meet the principles of training, e.g. specificity, progression, overload and reversibly and as well as the F.I.T.T principles. By making sure the training plans includes all of these it will help improve there overall fitness as well as there overall performance by improve the aspects of health related fitness as well as the skill related fitness components. There are also physiological benefits such as hypertrophy of the heart, lower resting heart rate resulting in bradycardia, also the force of ventricular contraction will increase which will lead to an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output. There will also be an increase and improvement of reaction to physical activity of slow twitch (type I0 muscle fibres and fast twitch type IIa and type IIb fibres. The muscles will also have an increase tolerance of build up of lactic acid. Reference
Advanced PE for Edexcelhttp://www.brianmac.co.uk/continuum.htm