• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Discuss the role of feedback in teaching and learning of physical skills".

Extracts from this document...


Essay Example "Discuss the role of feedback in teaching and learning of physical skills" This document for guidance only - please note relevant rules on plagiarism ref: Claire Haycock (2001) Feedback is used as a guiding tool and is central for good and successful coaching and learning. In order for the learner to learn new skills, there needs to be constant observations of their actions. Feedback is information from the environment which informs the athlete about their performance during and following the movement. Feedback is critical to a successful form of learning. For feedback information to be of any value it should be compared against a model, therefore it is easy to detect and rectify any errors. The models must meet all the relevant criteria and at the same time be flexible to allow for individual variations. A model for a beginner will differ from a model for an expert. It is important that the learner plays apart in their learning and is aware of the model which they are working against as this could stimulate motivation. Feedback provides information about performance. It acts as a motivator especially for learners. I was learning to play hockey and I felt I just couldn't do it. When I hit the ball, it went in the wrong direction. ...read more.


I then progressed and put into a game situation and KR was more appropriate because the success was largely monitored by the outcome. When learning new skills, extrinsic feedback is useful from a coach or teacher as they have the knowledge about the skill, but once the learner is more confident and capable, they will be able to use intrinsic feedback where they are able to self analyse themselves. Most kinds of feedback which is used for a learner is determined by the coach and whether they feel the learner can cope with constructive criticism. Research has been conducted to prove that feedback is important. Crisfield quoted in Sharp, 1986, 'Feedback is absolutely vital. It's very difficult to evaluate your own role without external feedback. I try to give two forms of feedback, objective feedback from game analysis as well as subjective feedback from my own perceptions. I try to give players feedback on a personal basis, face to face, and if that's not possible, which sometimes in a large team game it isn't, I'm forced to give them feedback on paper. I try to give feedback as soon as possible after the game but this depends on the individual and what has happened in the game.' In some sports, feedback can be given concurrently, (throughout the game) ...read more.


This is where the performer is consciously performing and adjusting to feedback. Due to this, the performance is much slower. This theory suggests that the more experienced you are, the less feedback you need compared to a learner. Another theory was made by Edward Throndike (1932). He suggested that positive feedback helps with the development of motor skills. This was the 'Law of Effect', where if a response is followed by a successful experience, then the Stimulus Response bond is strengthened and the performer becomes motivated, but if the response is negative, then the Stimulus Response bond is weakened, therefore demotivating the performer. Linking in with positive reinforcement is the long term memory (LTM). When the performer learns a new skill it automatically goes into their short term memory (STM). If the performer receives positive feedback and enjoys the skill, it will then goes into the LTM which means the performer will remember it weeks later. If the skill was being performed and receives negative feedback and it could demotivate the performer and it could be likely they wouldn't want to perform it again, therefore it would probably not enter the LTM and be forgotten. To conclude, feedback is a source of information which tells the performer the outcome of their movement. It can act in different ways and have different effects on people. Through my own experiences in sport, I find feedback very useful with the aid of guidance and I have found different sources of research which also agree. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Discuss the Role of Feedback In the Learning of Skills.

    of performance An example of this can be a Basketball coach telling his team what went wrong and what went right after a game and telling them how to improve on the performance, this however, can be both extrinsic and intrinsic.

  2. Why do people take part in physical activity?

    * A joule is defined as the energy needed when 1 kilogram (kg) is moved 1 metre by a force of 1 newton (N). * A calorie (cal) is defined as the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree (from 14.5 to 15.5 C).

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    lot, then as I was taught the new technique of guiding the ball onto the table, it doesn't come out as I'm still in the habit of using the technique in which I originally learnt. I also feel that sometimes I can be a lazy player, and tend to get

  2. Different Types of Learning. Everyone has there own way of learning people might have ...

    Knowledge of results * Positive * Negative Continuous: continuous feedback is also known as ongoing or concurrent feedback. This type of feedback is received while the activity is taking place. This feedback is usually received as proprioceptive or kinaesthetic information.

  1. Motivation plays a key role in the learning of skills, because the performer has ...

    Three well known researches of the cognitive theory are Robert Gagn�, Jerome Bruner and David Ausubel. These three all have their own theories on cognitive learning with Robert Gagn�'s theory being one of the most popular being taught in schools.

  2. Sports Analysis (Tennis)

    out of 100 which is reasonable but could definitely do with some improvement. The response that the website gives is that my results indicate that I use many strategies to help me concentrate. I may have a little difficulty getting started on and completing tasks on the rare occasion, but

  1. Discuss the role of feedback for learning skills for individual, racket and team sports

    demotivating, for example, "That wasn't so good, next time you need to look up before passing the ball". You need to be careful if you give only negative feedback to a beginner, as it may encourage them not to carry on with the sport, as they may feel not good enough.

  2. Leadership Essay

    Eg the half time period in a football match. * Little confusion, one person is in charge - In a U17 rugby team, all the players think they have the most knowledge and try to put forward this knowledge to everyone else. This could get confusing, but with the presence of an autocratic leader this confusion is eliminated.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work