• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills.

Extracts from this document...


Daniel Thompson Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Introduction When a performer chooses to move or make an action it is controlled by the conscious brain using a collection of learned movements. For this movement to progress successfully, the performer requires feedback. Types of skill There are a number of different types of skills: * Cognitive - or intellectual skills that require thought processes * Perceptual - interpretation of presented information * Motor - movement and muscle control * Perceptual motor - involve the thought, interpretation and movement skills * How do we Learn new skill? The teaching of a new skill can be achieved by various methods: * Verbal instructions * Demonstration * Video * Diagrams * Photo sequences * The Learning Phases There are three stages to learning a new skill and these are: * Cognitive phase - Identification and development of the component parts of the skill * Associative phase - Linking the component parts into a smooth action * Autonomous phase - Developing the learned skill so that it becomes automatic To learn a skill it requires relevant movements to be assembled component-by-component, using feedback to shape and perfect them into one smooth action. Rehearsal of the skill is also important in order for the skill to be maintained at the correct status. ...read more.


It acts as a motivator and this applies especially for learners. There are three main methods of guidance in relation to learning a skill and they are...Visual guidance, Verbal Guidance and Manual Guidance. Guidance is an important factor in learning a new skill in sport as it reinforces feedback. Feedback is what the performer did, and guidance is how the performer can improve. Visual Guidance is basically someone showing the learner how the skill is performed. This creates a mental image and helps the learner to get the idea of how to perform the skill. Verbal Guidance is basically when the teacher/coach describes the action involved or how the skill is performed. Manual Guidance is when the coach/teacher actually aids the learner physically to perform the task. An example of this would be in gymnastics when the teacher helps an athlete perform a summersault. Anyway, which ever form of feedback is used it is important that the feedback is accurate, concise and understandable so that the player can rectify his errors and stay focused on the task in hand. Positive Feedback - positive feedback is when a person is given feedback on their performance with a successful outcome. This is basically when the positives are outlined and the negatives constructively criticised. The player then knows what to repeat for the next time they perform the skill with that particular action. ...read more.


This also strengthens the schema in the memory. Concurrent - This type of feedback is basically information provided to the athlete during the performance. This can be from either the performer or the coach and can be extrinsic - a coach shouting information at the performer, or intrinsic - the performer feeling the movements. This type of feedback is beneficial although a negative is that a teacher interrupting an athlete whilst training might make them lose concentration. Knowledge of Performance - Knowledge of performance (KP) can be gained from feedback, coach, video or self-analysis about their performance or technique. This basically enables the athlete to establish a kinaesthetic reference for the appropriate movement. Knowledge of Results - Knowledge of results (KR) is information that is to do with the result of an athlete's performance. The results are given to the performer who then analyses them and compares them to previous performances. Differences between knowledge of performance and knowledge of results The difference between knowledge of performance and knowledge of results is basically that knowledge of results is different because it is only extrinsic information concerning the outcome of the skill or activity. Overall most athletes prefer knowledge of result rather then knowledge of performance. Summary Overall feedback is information, which tells the performer the result or outcome of their movement. It can come form different sources and can act in different ways and have many different effects depending on the person. With the correct guidance, feedback can be very useful to a performer. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Acquiring, Developing & Performance Skill essays

  1. Discuss the Role of Feedback In the Learning of Skills.

    One other motivation type of feedback is Terminal Feedback. This is the information given before the activity is played. It should be all positive getting the performer focused on the task ahead. Terminal is also feedback after the activity. This shouldn't be too harsh, as the performer will know by intrinsic feedback how well they did straight after the activity.

  2. PPP Action plan 2003.

    Secondly I had team mate support and was able to create space for him as I ran down the flank of the court and passed into him at the last moment after a dummy. Played well in the game, when setting picks etc and general fitness up and down the

  1. Self analysis of weaknesses in table tennis - Comparison to elite model 2

    top of the bounce has been found, Paul twists his hip, from a low position into a slightly higher position to allow him to get the power in the ball, then movement comes from rotation from the ball and socket joint around the pelvis, the abdominals help the body to rotate around this point.

  2. Different Types of Learning. Everyone has there own way of learning people might have ...

    An example of this would be a golfer hitting a shot, he can feel if he has hit the 'sweet spot' as it is known. Terminal: terminal feedback is feedback that is given to the performer after the skill or task has been completed, it can be given immediately after the skill /performance or some time later.

  1. Sports Analysis (Tennis)

    good few levels if I approve my psychological game to a good standard. Especially my handling of pressure and controlling and channelling aggression. I have taken a concentration test at the following link to test my levels of concentration http://www.queendom.com/tests/access_page/index.htm?idRegTest=685 The result I got on my concentration test is 64

  2. Comment on the role of the 'coaching point' and discuss how its nature changes ...

    In the cognitive stage of learning there are four main points of coaching; instruction, demonstrating, applying and confirming. The coach would start with telling the learner what to do but with as little information as possible so that not to flood the learner with too much information and they cannot remember it.

  1. The role of feedback

    Feedback is then used either intrinsically or extrinsically to help for the next movement to be made. Again feedback is useful at all these stages as it helps us to affect what we will do. The model above also shows how feedback links into the sensory input such as the

  2. Analysis of an alite performer

    Attackers need to be strong at heading to try and beat defenders to the ball and head it into the back of the net. John Terry is extremely strong at heading the ball. Not only is he captain for Chelsea but he is England's skipper as well.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work