Energy Balance

By Elliot Nightingale

Energy Intake and Expenditure

Energy intake is the amount of energy taken in buy the athlete’s body through food and drinks. Energy in the body cannot be created or destroyed it can only be changed into different forms; this is the principle of energy conservation. Each different sports performer will require different energy intakes because of age, gender, sport, fitness level and some other factors.

Energy expenditure is the amount of energy (Kcal) that a human being uses. This is influenced by the individuals:

  • Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Dietary Induce Thermogenesis
  • Physical activity
  • Adaptive Thermogenesis

Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal Metabolic Rate is the amount of calories per day your body burns, regardless of exercise. It changes with age, weight, height, gender, diet and exercise habits.

Dietary Induce Thermogenesis

Diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) can be defined as the increase in energy expenditure above basal fasting level divided by the energy content of the food ingested and is commonly expressed as a percentage. It is, with basal metabolic rate and activity induced thermogenesis, one of the three components of daily energy expenditure. Although DIT is the smallest component, it could play a role in the development and/or maintenance of obesity.

Physical Activity

Physical activity is any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports.

Adaptive Thermogenesis

Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) represents the way the body responds to stress whether it is emotional or environmental (for example, changes in temperature). Typically, stressful situations result in an increase in calories burned.

Show with worked examples how energy expenditure can be calculated for a rest day, a training day and a match day.

I can compare my energy expenditure calculations, to that of published data. I will explain why there could be any differences.

This table below shows certain exercises per hour and the amount of kcal that activity will expend. In my calculations, I had to work with different method of calculating that doesn't take into consideration different factors such as soma ta type, weight, height, intensity of activity and diet.

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Also the calculation that I used for working out my BMR was the same for 10-17 year olds. This means it could be inaccurate because it is doubtful that the same calculation would give the correct result for a 10 year old, and a 17 year old. Me being 16, I could’ve got a slightly higher/lower BMR if there was a calculation directed specifically for a 16 year old.

Plus when your playing a game for rugby for example you will be using much more energy than that used in a game of darts, this is because in ...

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