Also the calculation that I used for working out my BMR was the same for 10-17 year olds. This means it could be inaccurate because it is doubtful that the same calculation would give the correct result for a 10 year old, and a 17 year old. Me being 16, I could’ve got a slightly higher/lower BMR if there was a calculation directed specifically for a 16 year old.
Plus when your playing a game for rugby for example you will be using much more energy than that used in a game of darts, this is because in rugby there is a bigger area to cover (pitch size) and you are moving much more muscle playing rugby than darts .
Also another factor that could effect the energy expenditure within the sport would be the position that you play, a flanker would burn much more calories than a winger this is because a flanker has to be everywhere on the field and do a lot of the work, he is the main worker for the forwards where as a winger will only get the ball a few times in a game and he wont have to make as many tackles as a flanker or do as much running, the running that the winger will do will be only for a short period of time.
Average Energy Expenditure of Various Activities and Sports
Energy balance is the state in which the total energy intake equals total energy needs.
Energy balance has three different states, Positive, negative, and balanced. These are explained below
- Neutral energy balance is when the calories you take in is equal to the calories expended.
- Weight is maintained.
- Positive energy balance is when the calories you take in is greater than the calories expended.
- Weight is gained and fat stores are increased.
- One pound of fat contains approximately 3500 Calories.
- Negative energy balance: calories you take in is less than the calories expended.
- Adipose, glycogen, and muscle can be used for energy to make up the caloric deficiency.
- Ideally weight is lost and fat stores are reduced.
A sports person would want to be in balance when they are at their normal training day and not looking so massive gains. This is mainly referring to any sports person who wants to stay at their optimum weight.
When they would want to make massive gains in their training they would want to be at a negative energy balance so they are giving out more calories than taking in. A sporting example for this would be someone playing in a weight category sport and need to lose weight quickly.
On a day when you are playing a game you would want to be more positively balanced because he will want a lot of energy for the game and to be at his peek of performance and he wont lose a lot of that energy. For a sporting example this would be a blocker in American football, these players need to be very big as they are the people who block others from defending.
Recently there has been a massive boom in the usage of protein supplements, these are used as a supplement to a training session and are ideal for people who want to lay down muscle mass and who need to gain more protein in the body, these are normally high in whey protein because it contains hight levels of 2 essential acids these acids are the ones that are broken down during exercise. So when a sports performer is training this is a very useful way to get the amino acids that have been broken down during his training session.
Protein contain plentiful supplies of amino acids and are quick and convenient to use but however there are some issues to take into consideration.
- The human body had evolved to fain its protein from natural sources (meats rather than protein powder).
- They often contain sweeteners and sugars or colourings.
- The process of drying the protein will damage the structure of the amino acids making them unusable by the body.
- They can be expensive.
Analysis of positives of protein
Protein is the building block of muscles and essential for repair and growth of muscle after exercise. Whenever you exercise, and particularly during resistance exercise, you cause microscopic damage to the muscle fiber. This isn't the type of damage that you go to the doctor for, but normal biological damage. The effect creates a stimulus and environment for muscle repair and growth. The body responds to the damage by sending nutrients, including protein and other growth factors like testosterone, to the muscle to help it grow. And just for the record, and contrary to what many people think, protein is not used by the muscles for fuel unless the circumstances are extreme (for example, starvation). Instead, fat and carbohydrate are the main fuels.
Research shows that protein consumed before exercise and within 30 minutes of finishing your workout will help with growth and recovery. The guideline for protein consumption after exercise is 1 gram for every 3-4 grams of carbohydrate. The guidelines for quantity of protein before exercise are not as clear as after, but you can experiment and see if you notice any difference.
You probably won't notice much difference using protein supplements unless you are malnourished or an elite athlete doing tremendous amounts of aerobic or resistance exercise.
So if your an athlete then protein can have massive benefits as long as your using it in the right way and training very hard so you can use the protein supplements in the way described above to help increase muscle gain and repair. Buy why would you want this you may ask. Well when you have completed a gym session your body might ache for a day or two after the session taking protein will stop or reduce this aching quite considerably so then if your performing at elite level and need to train everyday, protein will be the obvious choice of supplement to aid the repair of the weekend muscle to a workout the next day isn't that much of a challenge as it would be without protein.
Obesity And Anorexia
Obesity is the heavy accumulation of fat in your body to such a degree that it rapidly increases your risk of diseases that can damage your health and knock years off your life, such as heart disease and diabetes. This is referring to someone who would be more positively energy balanced.
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder affecting mainly girls or women, although boys or men can also suffer from it. It usually starts in the teenage years. This is referring to someone who would be negatively energy balanced.
The effects of having a positive energy balance on a sports performer would be that because they have all this excessive energy approx one pound of fat contains approximately 3500 Calories, they can use this during a game to work harder for a much more higher intensity because they have an excessive amount of energy this process is known to all athletes as carbo-loading. Carbo-loading aims to prevent the onset of fatigue during endurance events. If completed properly, carbo-loading can almost double the normal amount of stored carbohydrate found in a trained person.
Whilst performance will be increasing because of the high carbohydrates in the body this may not have a great effect on the health of the performer, were more referring to obesity when we say that this is a critical condition and can lead to death if not dealt with immediately, also when he will be walking it will be putting a great strain on his joints, all the weight that is above his knees is being forced down onto his knees this could lead to cartilage damage when carbo-loading you shouldn't do this all the time or it can lead to obesity this should be done a few days before a event.
Being obese can also have a poor effect on your performance because it will make you bloated, cause high blood pressure, heart burn all of these can have a much greater effect in the sense that they could lead to strokes and death, so being obese basically makes performing minimal intensity tasks such as walking up the stairs a great up hill struggle.
When trying to play sport in this state it will be very difficult because, you wont be able to run for so long, you will get tired very quickly because of the excess weight you are carrying, you will lose breath very quickly because of all the fatty deposits clogging up your arteries that wont be allowing the oxygen to be distributed around the body sufficiently.