Energy Systems in the Human Body

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Energy Systems

ATP is broken down by the enzyme ATPase to form ADP and Pi. Energy is release exothermically from this reaction. ATP can be used in the body for up to 3 seconds of muscular work at high intensity. The bond that holds the phosphate to the ATP molecule has potential energy, which when broken released energy.

ATP/PC System takes place in the sarcoplasm. PC is broken down by the enzyme creatine kinase to produce a phosphate, creating and energy. The phosphate from this reaction can be used to resynthesize ATP, by reacting ADP + P + energy. This is an endothermic reaction. Overall, there is a yield of 1:1, so there has been a 0 net gain of ATP. This process can take place anaerobically, so therefore, no oxygen is required in this system. This process can only supply energy to resynthesize ATP between 8 - 10 seconds. Athletes such as Usain Bolt and best suited to this system, as their main events only last up 10 seconds, so therefore, the athlete can carrying on using this system for whole race, instead of using another system, which can take up more time and cause lactic acid.

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After this stage is the lactic acid system, which also takes place in the sarcoplasm. Glucose is first broken down into pyruvic acid by the enzyme PFKase, releasing 2 molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid if further broken down into lactic acid by the enzyme LDHase. Lactic acid is a fatiguing product, so therefore, pH levels will decrease, and enzymes will denature and no longer work as biological catalysts. This process can resynthesize ATP between 10 seconds and 3 minutes at high intensity. This is an anaerobic process, so no oxygen is required. A ...

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