Fitts and Posner suggest that this progression from novice to expert can be modelled using information processing concepts. Their model, which shows the three phase of skill learning helps coaches to analyse what stage of learning their athletes are at and structure practise accordingly. Fitts and Posner’s model identifies three phases or stages of learning. They are Cognitive (early) phase, Associative (intermediate) phase and Autonomous (final) phase.
Cognitive (early) phase
The learner tries to get to grips with the nature of the activity that is being learned. Demonstrations are important, as this will give visual aid to the learner of what to do as well as verbal explanation, which tend to highlight the important cues. Problem solving also seems to work in the prepractise stage. Then after a demonstration the learner tries to remember or memorise the sequences of movements and also it helps to verbalise these, for example the breaststroke leg kick is a good example bend, kick and together another example is of a person juggling, practise and memorise the movements needed for a two ball juggle. It is important that to much feedback or information being given out can result in overload and this can be dangerous for the learners because they have to much to think about with the visual focus on the movement as well as the area so be sure not to overload. If a learner is in this stage then it is important to give feedback at all times to keep reinforcing so correct responses are given and given on shaping. Throughout this stage performance will be full of errors and the movement that they must perform is inconsistent and lacks fluency.