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In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems.

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Responses to Exercise In this assignment I will explain and analyse the initial responses to exercise. It will include how the cardiovascular responses, respiratory responses, neuromuscular responses and the energy systems that are affected. First of all, there are many responses that occur in the cardiovascular system that make changes within the first two minutes of exercise. One of these is heart rate. The heart rate increases by pumping more blood around the body. Normally, the cardiac muscles of the heart walls will contract around 60-80 times a minute. However, when exercise is started, the body realises that more oxygen is needed for the muscles to work at their full potential. Therefore, the heart pumps more blood carrying much needed oxygen to the working muscles. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of one ventricle of the heart each beat. With aerobic exercise training, it is possible to increase stroke volume, meaning that more blood will be pumped out of the heart with each beat, resulting in a more efficient heart and more oxygen being delivered to the muscles. ...read more.


Therefore with training, it is possible to increase the efficiency of your breathing during exercise. Also, during anaerobic exercises, it is possible to perform the valsalva manoeuvre which is the process of breathing out against a closed mouth and nose. Pulmonary ventilation is a measure of the rate of ventilation, meaning the exchange of air between the lungs and the air. The rate of pulmonary ventilation is defined as the tidal volume multiplied by the number of breaths taken per minute. During the first minute of exercise, breathing rate increases and so does tidal volume. Therefore, the pulmonary ventilation also increases. When we want our muscles to move for exercise, we must send a message from our brains to our muscles through nerve impulses. These nerve impulses are small electric currents which run through the central nervous system, through the nerves and then into the muscle tissue. These nerves that send the signal are known as motor neurones. This is what happens in the first moments of exercise, so that the brain knows that the muscles need to work. ...read more.


This energy is then used to make the muscles contract for the start of exercise. There are three energy systems in our body that make the ATP we need. As soon as we start exercising, the system that we use to produce ATP is the phosphocreatine system. This produces ATP much quicker than any other system and does not involve oxygen which means it is a anaerobic energy system. This system is used for the first ten seconds of the two minutes of exercise but cannot last for longer than that as it is designed for short bursts of energy such as sprinting. This is where the lactic acid system comes in. In the absence of oxygen, glucose is broken down into pyruvate. This is then converted into lactic acid which produces ATP very quickly. This system will produce the majority of energy for the first two minutes of exercise. The stored ATP will be used on the outset, then for the next ten seconds the phosphocreatine energy system will be used and for the remaining time the lactic acid system is used as it can last up to three minutes. ...read more.

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