Psychology for Sports Performance - task1 - How personality affects sports performance.

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Sports Psychology

Task 1

P1 - Describe personality and then how personality affects sports performance.

Personality is the sum of those characteristics that make a person unique. Personality and the potential effects it can have on sports participation and sports performance has been of interest to sport psychologists and researches as far back as the late 1800s.

Personality types

In sports psychology the narrowband approach can be personality characterised and grouped into Type A and Type B.

Type A individuals can be described as people who are impatient, lack tolerance of others and have high levels of personal anxiety. Also have a strong urge for competition, have high desire to achieve goals, always rush to complete activities, will happily multi-task when placed under heavy time constraints.  Also Type B individuals can be described as people who are more relaxed; they are also tolerant towards others and have low levels of personal anxiety and display higher levels of imagination and creativity.

Effects of sports performance on Type A and Type B

There is no direct link between personality type and successful sporting performance. Some research has suggested that certain personality types may be more attracted to certain sports, but little says that your personality will make you a better athlete. Although the type A and Type B approach to personality does have some application to sports settings, its greater use has come in the exercise and health psychology through its uses in predicting coronary heart disease. In sport, type A individuals are more likely than type B people to continue participating in a sporting setting when the situation becomes unfavorable or when they are not particularly motivated to take part.

Personality theories

There are different types of personality theories they are: Trait, social learning, situational approach and interactional approach.

Trait theory – This personality is based on the assumption that a person’s personality can be captured in a series of different oppositions. A trait is what we also call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives feels, believes, or acts. When you casually describe someone you are likely to use trait terms e.g. a person could be, for example, somewhat of an introvert, a pretty nervous person, strongly attached to their family, frequently depressed and very intelligent. Have a good sense of humor, fond of languages, very fond of good food, not at all fond of exercise, and a little obsessive. The conclusion is that personality alone cannot predict athletic success but it can be used to help to explain some of the reasons why people choose some of the sports they do. Personality traits can predict a limited amount of behavior. Personality can be used with physiological and situational factors in order to suggest whether an athlete will be more or less successful in a sporting situation.

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Social learning theory – This personality characterized our learning and is not genetically predetermined.  In it other people influence a person’s behavior. We also observe and imitate role models significant to us. When a sports performer’s behavior is reinforced through positive feedback, behavior is likely to be repeated. Situation is an important influence, perhaps illustrating why performers change their behavior instead of showing stable traits. Also in reactions to situations often based on how others have reacted in similar situation. Sports stars personalities and behaviors are often copied as they are seen us ideals. This theory suggests that individuals ...

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