Techniques, Rules and Tactics of Football

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Sam Morley                Unit 10

Unit 10 Assignment 10.1

Techniques, Rules and Tactics of Football

        In this assignment I will be giving detailed explanations of the techniques, rules and tactics used in football. I will use detailed diagrams and pictures to show the relevant techniques, rules and tactics used. I will also give a general overview of the knowledge that is required by a coach.

1. Technique:

        In football every position played in requires a number of different techniques to help bring the best result for your team. The team is broken down in to four different sections:

  • Goalkeeper
  • Defenders
  • Midfielders
  • Attackers

Each individual is required to learn a number of different techniques to become better and work well in their section.


The goalkeeper is known as a defensive player but they are required to know a certain number of techniques to help keep the game under control, the goalkeeper plays a main role in some of the opposition’s attacks.

Before a goalkeeper moves they must assess 4 major factors that could cause an opposition goal being scored these are:

  1. Holding up their position even before the ball is kicked.
  2. The line in which the ball is travelling to
  3. The pace of the ball
  4. The Trajectory of the ball, this includes the amount of swerve that is on the ball and if a dip is expected.

Attacking the ball:

When attacking the ball goalkeepers must also decide whether to move late, move quickly and take the ball at the highest point of play. When attacking the ball quickly early decisions must be made:

Early Decisions:

  • Once the ball is kicked the goalkeeper can either decide whether to attack the ball or defend the goal.
  • If they decide to attack the ball, an early call will help your co-defenders know your there, but they must make sure that the path is clear and is not impeded by attacking players.
  • If they decide to defend the goal then the goalkeeper may have to adjust their position, to reduce the angle of the shot.
  • If the goalkeeper decides to attack, then that decision is final, the goalkeeper cannot change their mind halfway through doing so as this may increase a risk of conceding a goal.

If the goalkeeper decides to move late the four things can give you an advantage for delaying the movement:

  • More time is given to assess the trajectory of the ball
  • There will be more time for goalkeeper’s co-defenders to clear the route of the ball.
  • After this decision you must move quickly- greater height will be achieved, when jumping up for the ball.
  • To decide if you are catching the ball or punching it away from goal.

Goalkeepers also have a major technique which is catching they must remember some points in how to do it and when to do it as it could cause a major decision in the game play these are:

  • They must keep their eyes on the ball if the decision is to catch the ball.
  • Deicide if they need to take a one foot take off, to rise above your defenders and oppositions attackers to take the ball.
  • If catching then arms must be out stretched with hands out in-front of the head.
  • Fingers must be out stretched- with hands to the side and behind the ball with thumbs close together, this will give a better grip on the ball and less chance of dropping.
  • Once the ball is caught it must be brought to the body as quickly as possible to give attackers less opportunities of attacking the ball from your hands.
  • When the ball is in the hand hold it for about 6 seconds or unless there is a chance of making a quick break. Most importantly take your time.

  • When the ball is in the goalkeepers hands they need to make sure they are not to close to the edge of the area if the decision is to do a drop kick out of the hands- this is because some linesman may give free kicks on the edge of the area if they think that they have gone outside their area with the ball in their hands.

Punching the ball is a good technique that goalkeepers use in tight situations to get the ball out of their area as quick as possible. It is effective if used correctly and timed efficiently.

        The punching technique is used in situations when the goalkeeper knows they cannot catch the ball, best times to use it are:

  • When the goalkeeper is not sure of the balance of themselves so quick punch maybe a good way to clear the ball.
  • To make a strong challenge from 1-2 opponents, it can be cleared with power and accuracy.

The technique of deflecting the ball over the bar is effective if it is done with skill and accuracy. The goalkeeper can do this technique with one or two hand depending on the situation they are in; it is an excellent technique for tight or fast situations to clear the ball out as fast as possible.

  • The one handed technique is mainly used when the goalkeeper is recovering towards goal to deal with attacks such as lobs or dipping shots. This technique is either used with the palming or lifting the ball over the crossbar, the body must be side ways on and the hand that make contact with the ball is the inside hand, so the one which is nearest the attacker. It is important when using this technique to keep the head steady and watch the ball throughout.
  • The two handed technique of this skill is usually used to deflect powerful shot on goal over the crossbar. Contact with the ball is, made with the palms and fingers of both hands on the underneath section of the ball.

Punching the ball is also a good technique for clearing the ball quickly and effectively. It is used at its best when attacking the ball along its line of flight from crosses or corners. The technique can be used with one or two fists.

  • Two fists are best used if you want power on the ball and to clear it high and far. When applying this technique contact with the ball must be made with the surface of both fists, the fists must strike through the bottom half of the ball. To propel the ball high the arms must be fully extended.
  • Punching the ball with one fist is exactly the same as using two, this technique just gives you less power, so is best used if attackers are blocking your view. The skill is made by using exactly the same techniques; contact should be made on the bottom half f the ball.

Handling is one of the most important techniques for a goalkeeper, your handling needs to be accurate and skilled to become a good keeper.

Good handling of the ball can either be used to hold the ball or deflect depending on the situation, which are ground shots or aerial shots.

  • Ground shots (Hold): to hold ground shots one hand must be behind the ball to stop it and the other hand above the ball to still the ball in place and hold it. Having stopped the ball, it should be taken to the body as quickly as possible to secure possession, to make it even more secure bring the legs towards the body simultaneously.
  • Ground shots (Deflect): This must only be used if there is any doubt of not being able to hold the ball, and then it must be deflected away safely. The wider the goalkeeper deflects the ball the safer it is and best results come when deflecting the ball out of play.
  • Aerial shots (Hold): To hold an aerial shot the goalkeepers hands must be to the side of the ball and behind. If the ball cannot be gathered into the body in mid-air, then the goalkeeper should twist and fall with the ball wedged between their hands and the ground. Then the ball should be secured to the body as in a ground shot.
  • Aerial shots (deflect): This should only be used if the goalkeeper cannot hold the ball; the ball should be deflected high and wide. The best result comes if the ball is deflected over the crossbar or round the post.

Diving is also an effective technique to get behind the ball a stop any shot with the whole of the body. There are three things that must be remembered when applying this technique.

  • Keep the head still
  • Eyes on the ball at all times
  • Push off from the leg nearest the ball

Outfield Players:

There are some basic techniques that every outfield player should use in any position on the field then they can be advanced on to help a situation in that occurs in the position they play in. For example Heading, Kicking, Passing are the basic skills needed in the game of football.

Heading techniques are vital for air power in football. The team that dominates in the air can win the ball in the vital danger zone in front of the six yard box both when defending and attacking, and that team can win the ball from long goal kicks. Heading skills also enable a team to use the long ball tactic bombarding the opposition with long passes towards their penalty area.

The correct part of the head to use is the forehead as shown in the photo. The forehead is the hardest and flattest part of your head, and it will give you better control over where you want to make the ball go as well as giving greater power.

This is the correct position on the forehead for heading the football.

Kicking techniques range from basic shooting and passing skills up to advanced techniques, such as bending the ball around a wall and overhead kicks. The basic skill though is the use of the instep for kicking at goal and passing the football.

The instep is the part of the foot where the laces are, it provides both power and control. The most common mistake made by footballers is to use the toe. Not only is this painful if somebody tackles hard when you are trying to kick, but it is terribly inaccurate. The advantage of the instep is that it presents a flat surface to the ball, and can also be used to make the ball swerve and dip.

The non-kicking foot provides support while kicking, and should be bent as you kick. If you want to keep the ball on the ground, the head is down, over the ball. The follow-through should be long and smooth, and another useful tip is to approach the kick slightly from the side whenever possible.

This basic kicking technique is often overlooked, because it is so simple. The real skill is being able to kick accurately whilst under pressure, and it is far more important to consistently improve at this basic skill than to be able to perform fancy tricks.         

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Useful drills for beginners or footballers who want to improve should include passing the ball in pairs over 10-20 metres within a narrow corridor, and kicking at targets on a wall.

Use the instep to kick with power and accuracy.

The toe presents a curved surface to the ball producing little power and little accuracy.

To follow the kicking technique there are a number of passing techniques to be learnt:

The inside of the foot pass (Push Pass):

The push pass using the inside of the foot, is the most important pass in football, as over ...

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